The impact of civil wars on crop production. a case study of lower Shabelle Region-Somalia.

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Kampala International University, School of Engineering and Applied Science
A civil war refers to a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies. Poor crop production has also been caused by increased civil wars among communities, use of poor-quality seeds and limited rains in the Lower Shabelle region. The objectives of the study were to identify the different systems used crops production, exploring the various causes of civil wars, finding out the impacts of civil wars on crop production and finally determining whether there is significant relationship between civil wars and level of crop production. The study adopted a descriptive correlational and expost facto research design. A total of 124 respondents was the sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used to obtain the sample size. Questionnaires were used for data collection and it was valid because it had a Content Validity Index of 0.9. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists software. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the adoption of inorganic fertilizers and crop yields. The findings were concluded as; the level and systems of crop production is generally high with the average mean of 2.69. Most respondents are settled farmers as opposed to shifting cultivation (mean3.59) and they always practice intercropping and crop rotation as the main systems of crop production (mean=3.28). The greatest cause of civil wars in the Shabelle region is lack of a strong central government in the country, followed by famine and the existence of inhabitants of different tribes or clans. The impact of civil wars on crop production is generally high with an average mean of 2.94. As per the impacts of civil wars, most of the respondents “strongly agreed” that many people in Shebelle region have lost their lives, rate of economic development has also been reduced, crop production of fruits and vegetables has also been reduced, the rate of emigration among the people has also increased in the Shebelle region. There is a very strong positive significant relationship between civil wars and the level of crop production in Lower Shebelle region-Somalia. The following recommendations were made; introducing improved varieties suitable to the different agro climatic conditions, introduction of small scale business entities by offering micro loans, implementation of the details contained within the working paper on Farming Systems in Somalia on the production constraints, multiple irrigation schemes, encourage the practice of mixed cropping and also formulate well-defined policies regarding land tenure system.
A dissertation submitted to the school of engineering and applied sciences in partial fulfilment for the Award of a Bachelor of Science Degree in Environmental Management of Kampala International University.
Civil wars, Crop production