Public Health

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 14
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    Urinary Tract Infections and Associated Factors among Youth:
    (INOSR Scientific Research, 2023) Mutonyi, Iryn Monica
    Nationally, urinary tract infection is more common among childbearing age groups of both males and females and it poses a dangerous health risk if left untreated. The study aimed at assessing the occurrence of urinary tract infections among the youths attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study design quantitative in nature was used. A convenient sampling method was used to recruit 156 respondents for the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection and was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software. 94% of the respondents stated that they were sexually active where 80% stated having one partner and 14% having two partners. 52% stated that they had been hospitalized with indwelling urethral catheters. 6% stated they were not sexually active. The researcher concluded that most of the youths had exposure to UTI in many different ways at some point in their life. We recommend health workers properly treat UTIs and give preventive measures to those at risk of getting infected.
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    Hepatitis B and C seroprevalence among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Rwanda
    (The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2015-01) Kamanywa, Patrick
    Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are significant global public health challenges with health care workers (HCWs) at especially high risk of exposure in resource-poor settings.We aimed to measure HBV and HCV prevalence, identify exposure risks and evaluate hepatitis-related knowledge amongst Rwandan tertiary hospital HCWs. Methods: A cross sectional study involving tertiary hospital employees was conducted from October to December 2013. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to collect data on HCWs’ socio-demographics, risk factors and knowledge of blood-borne infection prevention. Blood samples were drawn and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Results: Among 378 consenting HCWs, the prevalence of HBsAg positivitywas 2.9% (11/378; 95% CI 1.9 to 4.6%) and anti-HCV positivity 1.3% (5/378; 95% CI 0.7 to 2.7%). Occupational exposure to blood was reported in 57.1% (216/378). Of the 17 participants (4.5%; 17/378) who reported having received the HBV vaccine, only 3 participants (0.8%) had received the three-dose vaccination course. Only 42 HCWs (42/378; 11.1%) were aware that a HBV vaccinewas available. Most HCW (95.2%; 360/378) reported having been tested for HIV in the last 6 months. Conclusions: Despite their high workplace exposure risk, HBV and HCV sero-prevalence rates among HCWs were low. The low HBV vaccination coverage and poor knowledge of preventative measures among HCWs suggest low levels of viral hepatitis awareness despite this high exposure.
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    Epidemiology of Coccidian Parasites in HIV Patients of Northern Uganda
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2015-04) Echoru, Isaac; Herman, Lule; Micheni, Lisa; Ajagun-Ogunleye, Mulkah O.; Kalange, Muhamudu; Kasozi, Keneth Iceland
    Aim: The epidemiology of coccidian parasites in HIV patients of sub-sahara Africa is poorly understood. This study aimed at determining the epidemiology of coccidian parasites and their associated risk factors. This was a cross sectional study carried out in Arua district in West Nile region of Northern Uganda for a period of five months. Materials and Methods: Participants in the study included HIV positive patients presenting with diarrhea. A total of 111 patients were included and classified into children, middle aged and adults. A structured questionnaire was administered, stool samples were obtained using sterile stool containers and laboratory analysis carried out using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique (ZN). Ethical clearance was acquired and the consent of the patients was sought. Results and Discussion: Prevalence of Coccidian parasites among HIV patients was found to be 5.4% and Cryptosporidium parvum showed more prevalence than Isospora belli and Cyclospora cayatenensis i.e. (3.6%), (1.8%) and (0.0%) respectively. Most Cryptosporidium parvum infections occurred in children (13.6%) compared to adults (3.3%); with a significant relationship of (p = 0.02). The infection was higher in females (7.1%) than males (2.4%) (p = 0.19). The major risk factors associated with the disease were mainly consumption of contaminated and un-boiled water from taps and boreholes. HIV patients who took co-trimoxazole and drunk boiled water were shown to have a low prevalence of coccidian parasites of 1.9% and 2.6% respectively (p<0.05). This is because cotrimoxazole is a prophylactic drug for opportunistic infections and proper boiling of drinking water kills coccidian parasites. Conclusion and Recommendations: The study highlighted the importance and need to screen for coccidian parasites and emphasis on regular taking of prophylactic treatment as a way of controlling opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Future prevalence studies of Coccidia amongst healthy, HIV sero-negative children and adults of similar age groups in similar settings are recommended to ratify the relationship.
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    The next generation of Rwandan physicians with a primary health care mindset
    (Department of Puublic Health. Kampala International University, 2015) Kyamanywa, Patrick
    Globally there is a need for well-trained primary health care physicians at the district level. Physicians who focus on ambulatory care will be in greater demand in addressing the global burden of chronic disease and multi-morbidity, which are on the increase in Africa. Not surprisingly, family medicine has grown stronger on the African continent in the past decades.1,2,3 In Rwanda, education of health professionals has recently undergone several changes. Postgraduate training in medical and surgical specialties has been further developed in a constructive and inclusive way with support of American universities.
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    A Study to Investigate Major Community Health Challenges and Their Predisposing Factors in Bushenyi District of South Western Uganda
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2015) Echoru, Isaac; Kasozi, Keneth Iceland; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Emorut, Simon Peter
    Poor health care systems have contributed to poor standard of living in Uganda. The aim of the study was to assess major health challenges to community health and identify major predisposing factors. This was a cross sectional study in Kyakagina Village of Bushenyi of South Western Uganda. A total of 39 households which included 102 children (<19 years) and 80 adults (>19 years) were included in the study and a semi structured questionnaire was used. It was shown that there were 39 homes and 182 members with more males than females. Age and gender were shown not to be associated (P = 0.157). The majority of participants who boiled water in the community were showed to be of both primary and secondary level of education at 48.7% and 51.3%, respectively, while a significant proportion was found to drink only filtered and sedimented water without treatment at levels of 87.2% and 82.1% who were of only secondary level of education. The adoption of modern contraceptive pills, tube ligation and injections especially amongst the secondary educated level was found to be high, i.e. 94.9%, 87.2%, 82.1%, respectively. Inferential analysis showed that there existed marked differences (P < 0.001) in the health practices between persons of different education levels. Major health challenges identified included malaria, cough and cold, diarrhea which were most prevalent amongnst children at 19.6%, 13.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. In conclusion, failure to clear bushes, boil drinking water and cover pit latrines (P = 0.213) were the major risk factors identified independent of age and education status in the various homesteads.