Department of Biochemistry

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 10
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    Comparative Evaluation of Glibenclamide and Insulin on the Pups’ Liver Cytoarchitectonic Properties and Some Dams’ Parameters in Pregnant Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
    (Kampala International University, 2018) Lawal, Sodiq Kolawole; Adeniji, Adeoluwa Akeem; Sangoyomi, Oluwaseun Adewoye; Adeyemo, Rasheed Omotayo; Buhari, Muhammad Olanrewaju; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Osinubi, Abraham Adewale
    Despite the significant achievements in the treatment modalities and preventive measures, the prevalence of gestational diabetes in Africa has continued to rise exponentially in the last few decades. There is growing concern on the use of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) during pregnancy, due to the potential of the agents in causing adverse effect (s) on the developing fetus and its effectiveness in managing the gestational diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of glibenclamide compared with insulin on pups’ liver cytoarchitectonic property and oxidative stress markers, and on maternal glucose level and sexual hormonal profile. Twenty pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-160 g) divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D (n=5 per group) were used for the study. Rats in group A (control) were given 0.5ml distilled water daily while the rats in groups B, C, and D were rendered diabetic by administration of intraperitoneal low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and subsequently treated with 0.5mls of distilled water, glibenclamide (0.29 mg/kg body weight) and insulin (1 UI daily) respectively. Blood glucose levels were monitored and recorded throughout the experiment. The rats were sacrificed on the 19th day of gestational period. The pups’ liver and maternal blood sample were collected for analysis. The glibenclamide and insulin groups showed significant (p<0.05) decreased in blood glucose with an increased maternal body weight when compared to the diabetic group. The activities of GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the glibenclamide and insulin treated groups compared to the diabetic group. Also, MDA significantly reduced in the glibenclamide and insulin treated groups (C & D) when compared to the diabetic untreated group (B) with the greater reduction observed for insulin. There was an improvement in the hormonal profiles of glibenclamide and insulin treated groups compared with the diabetic group. Histologically, glibenclamide and insulin showed an improvement in the arrangement of cytoarchitectonic property of pups’ liver with mild steatosis compared with diabetic group. Based on our observations in this study, it was concluded that glibenclamide is as effective as insulin with no or little negative effect and could be an optional drug to be used in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus in place of insulin.
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    Carpolobia lutea methanol root extract reinstates androgenesis and testicular function in cadmiumchallenged rats
    (Kampala International University, 2019) Ejike, Daniel Eze; Okpa, Precious Nwaka; Igbokwe, Ugochukwu Vincent; Moses, Dele Adams; Karimah, Mohammed Rabiu; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo
    Cadmium produces a wide range of biological dysfunctions in human and laboratory animals where it chiefly affects the testes, whereas, Carpolobia lutea has been known to have antioxidant benefits. This study was intended to investigate the effects of Carpolobia lutea root extracts on testicular hormone function in cadmium-challenged male rats. 48 male Wistar rats (170-190 g) were divided into six groups, each containing eight rats. Experimental animals in control (Group 1) were given 0.2ml/kg body weight (BW) of 10% tween 80; Group two were administered 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p); Group 3 were given 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p) + 100mg/kg BW extract; Group four took 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p) + 200mg/kg BW extract while Group five and six got 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg BW extract respectively. The administration of vehicle and extract was conducted orally for six weeks. Testicular activity of 17 betahydrosteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and serum testosterone, luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone (LH, FSH) levels were evaluated. Findings indicated that cadmium statistically (p<0.05) lowered testicular 17β-HSD activity and serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels when compared with those of the control group animals. However, Carpolobia lutea and its co-administration notably (p<0.05) elevated the activity of testicular 17β-HSD and levels of serum testosterone, LH and FSH. The study suggests that Carpolobia lutea extract plays a protective function in ameliorating testicular damage caused by cadmium in rats. This is probably due to the extract’s potential in the management of testicular dysfunction and fecundity in animals.
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    Beyond Nutrients
    (Kampala International University, 2023) Esther, Ugo Alum; Okechukwu, P. C. Ugwu
    Phytochemicals are a broad class of bioactive substances that are produced by plants and can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and herbs. These phytochemicals, which include dietary fibers, polysaccharides, phytosterols, isoprenoids, carotenoids, and saponins, provide a variety of health advantages, including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. They also have strong antioxidant qualities. This thorough analysis focuses on the several phytochemicals, their origins, and the health benefits that go along with them. Recognizing the variety and advantages of phytochemicals highlights how they might improve human nutrition and health. This article's summary material comes from reliable academic sources such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. This page gives a brief introduction to the many and significant categories of plant-derived bioactive compounds by summarizing the major phytochemical classes, their origins, and their health advantages. Using the advantages of these substances to improve health outcomes points to a viable direction for further study and implementation in the promotion of overall wellness and health. Keywords
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    Hypoglycemic and High Dosage Effects of Bidens pilosa in Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2015-08) Mulkah, O. Ajagun-Ogunleye; Tirwomwe, Michael
    Ethno-pharmaceutical products have received a lot of international attention in the scientific community in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study we determined the anti-diabetic and high dosage effects of Bidens pliosa in type 1 DM (T1DM). Methodology: Thirty rats were divided into six groups and subgrouped into the extract and non extract treatment groups. The extract treated group was subdivided into three groups which received 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/ kg and 800 mg/kg dosage treatments respectively. The blood glucose levels were monitored using a standard glucometer for one month, and biochemical analysis of the two liver function enzymes; Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were carried out at the Institute of Biomedical Research (IBR-KIU-WC) at the end of week IV. The study revealed that Bidens pilosa maintained hypoglycemia for a period of two weeks and this status was lost in subsequent weeks. T1DM rats treated with a dosage of 200 mg/kg showed a better recovery (355.25 - 164.5 mg/dl) of the glucose levels, followed by those that were being treated at 400 mg/kg. The AST and ALT enzymes in blood varied with a mean ± SEM (33.72 ± 32.32 to −7.23 ± 12.61 IU and 22.98 ± 11.12 to 42 ± 38.2 IU, respectively) in both the glibencimide® and in the 800 mg/ kg treatment groups in the study. High dosages of extract were associated (P = 0.049) with increased systemic enzyme leakage. In conclusion, tissue degeneration caused by high levels of the extract was accompanied by leakage of various enzymes (AST and ALT) into the blood, which could be a major etiological factor for the development of secondary systemic pathologies, thus potentially worsening the effects of an existing T1DM prognosis in human patients.
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    Design of a Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine Based on Stably Binding HLA-I Peptides
    (OMICS Publishing Group, 2015-02) Ondieki, Miruka Conrad; Nyaribari, Matunda Conradus; Ejekwumadu, Nnamdi John; Nyakang’o, Mokembo Justin
    The hepatitis B virus continues to infect many millions of people worldwide. There is a need to develop new vaccines against the virus. Using immunoinformatics approaches, we have predicted epitopes within the hepatitis B virus surface antigen that can be used to develop a new vaccine. The predicted epitopes were then used to construct a synthetic vaccine. The interaction between the synthetic vaccine construct and major histocompatibility complex was also predicted using bioinformatics tools.