Masters of Science in Environmental Management

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    Effects of Community Hygiene and Water Handling Practices on Drinking Quality in Mpondwe Lhubitiha Town Council, Western Uganda
    (Kampala International University, 2023-10) Mumbere, Winfred
    Water safety and quality are fundamental to human development and well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of community hygiene and water handling practices on drinking water quality in Mpondwe Lhubiriha Town Council, Kasese District, Western Uganda. Sixteen samples from different water sources and storage vessels in households were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological Quality during wet and dry season as described in UNBS Portable water quality analysis guidelines. Characterization of Community hygiene, household drinking water handling practices and risk of water contamination was determined by Qualitative methodology. The study findings revealed that community hygiene and water handling practices had a direct effect on water quality where 97.70% of respondents do not practice household water treatment methods. PH, E.C, TDS, temperature, and total hardness were within permissible limits of WHO standard while there was a variation in Dissolved oxygen and nitrates values. Microbial analysis results showed a variation in Total coli and Escherichia coli above UNBS standard this could be due to cross contamination, poor water handling practices where some respondents (41%) had no specific cleaning schedule for water vessels, most respondents (54.00%) were using same vessels for water collection and storage as well as factors from already determined household sanitary risk factor of 39.00-90.00% while Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus bacteria was within limits of WHO standard. This research also revealed that Total coliform and E. coli have a strong positive correlation with Nitrate presence in the water samples (r=0.412, p=0.008) and Nitrates (r=0.557, p=0.000) respectively. Water from some sources and households in this Town Council is not safe for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, should promote good community hygiene, water handling practices and appropriate household water treatment practices to prevent Drinking water Quality variations from the set WHO standard.
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    Community Participation In Environmental Conservation Practice In Guri’el, Galmudug State, Somalia
    (Kampala International University, 2023-08) Mohammed, Yusuf Ali
    This study established the contribution of community participation in environmental conservation practice, examined the challenges faced by the communities in environmental conservation practice, and also proposed mechanisms that can be employed in environmental conservation practice in Guirel District. The study adopted a quantitative research method in which questionnaires were used to gather data from 171 respondents, with the use of descriptive statistical analysis to answer the research questions. The research hypothesis was tested at a 0.005 alpha level of significance. The study established that environmental conservation in the district is done through several mechanisms including the provision of seedlings to the community by the Government, periodic tree planting, provision of land for tree planting, the establishment of tree schemes by the Government, and provision of seedlings for reforestation by NGOs. Therefore, communities play a big role in the implementation of conservation programs in the district through the actual planting of trees and monitoring of the conservation programs. However, involved communities were challenged with a lack of financial support, limited information on conservation, lack of accessibility to the reforestation schemes, and a low level of awareness and this limited their support of the programs. The study therefore, recommends that a forest management plan that is involving community members in every stage and also making them play a key role in the management of the forest should be made so that they would argue what they want and how they want it done for a better understanding of the forest management. The study recommends that there is a need for government to popularize unknown species so that communities can benefit from their commercial exploitation.
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    The Impact of Climate Change On Community Livelihood In Jowhar Middleshabelle Region of Somalia
    (2023-10) AIDED, Hassan Ubeid
    The study set to conduct an assessment of the impact of climate change on community livelihood in Jowhar Middle Shabelle Region of Somalia. The information was attained from 320 respondents and 10 interview responses were the information was collected through questionnaires and interviews, descriptively analyzed and content analysis was assessed to determine the effect of climate change and community livelihood. The study findings indicated that the perceived causes of climatic changes in Jowhar Middle shabelle region of Somalia was deforestation, low levels of tree planting, weak environmental laws, agriculture and environmental encroachments and poor institutional Policy. Secondly results on the effect of climate change on livelihood of communities in Jowhar Middle Shabelle region was slightly majorly positive though negative effects have highly affected the livelihoods of communities in Jowhar Middle shabelle region of Somalia. Finally, the findings show that climate change strategies that can be employed to improve the community livelihood Jowhar middle Shabelle region Somalia are campaigns on disaster risk management, resettlement of people to less climatic hazards, climate change awareness campaigns and afforestation campaigns developed. The study reveal that climate changes were caused by environmental, human, policy and institutional factors which either positively or negatively induce the climate changes, poor environmental, poor human activities and weak institutional mechanisms exist which hinder the effective attainment good climatic conditions hence the prevalence of disaster. The study concludes that climate changes present both negative and positive effects on the livelihood of communities in Jowhar Middle shabelle region, Somalia. The study recommend for the implementation of afforestation and re-afforestation which can induce the environment for climate changes to induce tree planting, secondly the study recommends for the improved functionality of environmental protection efforts and policies by the government through afforestation and tree planting. Thirdly environmental awareness sensitization is necessary and different actors need to step up their efforts to improve the climate changes.
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    (2023-10) Hamza, Abdisalam Hussein
    The study to assess the effect of land pollution on community sustainability was conducted in Nakawa Division, Kampala, Uganda to establish the causes of land pollution among the communities, determine the effect of land pollution on community sustainability, and to design mechanisms that can be employed to reduce land pollution and ensuring community sustainability. The data was collected from 182 respondents and 7 key informants. The study results indicated that, industrialization, institutional factors, limited institutional capacity to plant vegetation, low effectiveness in monitoring by NEMA, ineffective implementation of policy, environmental and socio-cultural systems were major causes of land pollution. The effect was generally more negative hence the assertion that land pollution is a key towards community sustainability. It was established that land pollution reduce bio-diversity, increased dangerous gases and generally the community health in terms of plants, animal and people health in the communities. Also, about 80.2% of the respondents said that there were no mechanisms for reduction of land pollution and enhancing community sustainability. The study concludes that the occurrence of land pollution has generally reduced the community sustainability therefore, there is need for industrialization to be effectively managed to incorporate the environmental controls, effective policy implementations, monitoring of land polluters and provision of general environmental controls.
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    Phytochemical Analysis, Baterial And Antifungal Activity Of Compounds Of Alstonia Boonei Stem Bark
    (2023-10) Byaruhanga, Ivan
    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds present in the stem bark of Alstoniaboonei. The plant was selected on the basis of its wide spread use in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various ailments like malaria, urinary tract infections, fever, sleeplessness, chronic diarrhea, rheumatic aches and typhoid. The stem bark of Alstoniabooneiplant was collected from Mabira Forest, with the help of a plant taxonomist from the Department of Botany Makerere University. A voucher specimen was deposited at the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Makerere University, for future reference. The collected plant was air-dried under shade, ground into powder and extracted using Dichloromethane:Methanol (1:1) for 24 hours, with occasional stirring, at room temperature. The resulting extract was filtered using cotton wool, followed by Whatman (number 1) filter paper and then dried on a rotatory evaporator to obtain a crude extractThe crude extract was subjected to various chromatographic separations, isolation and purification to yield three pure compounds. Structure elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was achieved by a combination of spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, HSQC and COSY. This was done in Germany and the compounds were identified as triterpeneslupeol(1) (3β)-Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, di-butyl phthalate (2) butyl phthalic acid and β-amyrin ((3beta)-olean-12-en-3-ol) (3). The crude extract and the isolated pure compounds were tested for their antimicrobial properties against Candida albicans,Aspergillusfumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteraerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Compounds 1, 2, 3 showed moderate mean zones of inhibition of (8.4±1.2) mm, (5.0±2.5) mmand (8.3±1.4) mm respectively. The crude extract showed very high zones of inhibition of (9.4±0.7) mm. Furthermore, compounds 1and 3 showed high zones of inhibition against Candida Albicans and Arspegillusfumigatus of 12.6±0.2 mm and 12.3±0.7 mm respectively; compound 2 showed moderate mean zone of inhibition of (9±0.4) mm while the crude extract showed the highestzones of inhibition of 13.1±0.2 mm which proves the use of Alstoniaboonei stem bark in treatment of both bacterial and fungal infections.