Neuroprotective potential of lantana trifolium ethanolic extract against ethambutol induced changes in the optic nerve

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Kampala International University.College of Health Science
Introduction: Ethambutol (EMB) has been discovered as an anti-tuberculosis drug since 1960, and is now very important in treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis which is on a rise due to emergence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. However, EMB has been associated with severe side effects including optic neuropathy with no preventive and treatment measures. Purpose: To establish the protective potential of Lantana trifolium ethanolic extract against EMB induced optic nerve changes. Materials and Methods: Experimental design involving 25 male adult Wistar rats of 110-130g average weight, divided into five groups each comprising five animals. All rats were fed on standard commercial rat pellets and water ad libitum for five weeks. Group A, the negative control received distilled water. Group B, the positive control was treated with EMB 100 mg/kg/day. Test groups C, D, and E were treated with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day of trifolium Extract (TE) respectively, one hour before administering 100 mg/kg/day of EMB. Visual acuity during the 15 \ 3rd, and 5th week was determined by the mean escape latencies obtained using a modified Moris water maze. Optic nerves were macroscopically examined for gross morphological changes. The optic nerves were excised, processed and stained using Luxol fast blue, Hematoxlyin and Eosin for histological studies. A light microscope (x40) was used to examine optic nerve histological changes and ImageJ for analysis. Results and Discussion: Lantana trifolium ethanolic extract had a dose dependent protective potential against EMB induced changes. This was shown by the significant difference in visual acuity during the 5th week. There was a significant increase in the escape latenc,ies of positive control group (9.65±1.22) when compared with those of the negative control group (4.35±0.50), EMB +50mg/kg TE group (4.85±0.65), and EMB + l00mg/kg TE group (3.6±0.38). The neuroprotective effect was further shown by the significant difference in histological changes. The protective potential of Latana trifolium is likely due to the anti-oxidative and antiinflammatory activities. Conclusion and Recommendation: Lantana trifolium ethanolic extract has a dose dependent neuroprotective potential against EMB induced changes in the optic nerve. Since the exact phytochemical component and mechanism of action responsible for this effect are not known, further studies to find this out are strongly recommended. Key Words: Ethambutol, Optic Nerve, Lantana trifolium, Optic Neuropathy.
Research dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of a master of Science in Anatomy of Kampala International University, Uganda
Neuroprotective, Potential, Lantana, Trifolium