Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of crassocephallum vitellinum leaf extracts

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Kampala International University. School of Health Sciences
Objectives: The objectives of this study to carry out qualitative analysis of phytochemical constituents present in hexane, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts of crassocephallum vitellinum leaves and thereafter evaluate the antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of this plant against clinical pathogens of human origin. Methods: Extraction ofphytochemicals was performed by successive solvent extraction technique as explained by Hossamani.P.A (20 12). After the extraction process, phytochemical analysis was performed using qualitative methods explained by Evans (2002) and Harbone (1998). Antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested against staphylococcus areus, Escherichia coli and Klebsil!a pneumonia. The extracts were prepared at three varying concentrations of 300mg/ml, 150mg/ml and 75mg/ml. The antibacterial activity was determined by Agar well diffusion method as described by Sharmavaishale et al (2013). Results: Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, tannins, cardiac glycosides in all the three extracts used. Quinones were only present in the hexane extract where as diterpenoids, steroids and terpenoids were present in hexane and methanolic extracts only. Hexane extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus at the highest concentrations. The maximum mean zone of inhibition was 13.5±2.12mm In addition, hexane demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition (18.5±4.95) against Escherichia coli at the highest concentration of the extract but remained inactive at the lower concentrations of this extract against Escherichia coli. Similarly, at 300mg/ml, hexane extract inhibited the growth of Klebsila pneumoniae with a min zone of inhibition of 13.5mm but also remained inactive at the lower concentrations of 150mg/ml and 75mg/ml. The methanolic extract was only active against staphy/ocococcus aureus at 300mg/ml with a meanzone of inhibition of 18±2.83mm. Methonolic extract did not have activity against Klebsilla pneumonia and Escherichia coli at all the three varying concentration. Furthermore, ethyl acetate showed noantibacterial activity against all the test microorganisms at all the three concentrations of the extracts. Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,reducing sugars steroids, terpenoids, diterpenoids tannins quinines in ether hexane, ethylacetate ormethanolic extract. Finally, the present screening results demonstrated that hexane extract of crassocepha/lum vite/linum leaves has potent antibacterial activity and this plant may be a new source for novel antibacterial compound discovery for treating drugs resistant clinical human pathogens.
A Dissertation Submitted to School of Pharmacy in Partial Fulfillment of a Requirement for the Award of Bachelors Degree of Pharmacy of Kampala International University-Western Campus
Phytochemical analysis, Antibacterial activity, Crassocephallum vitellinum leaf extracts