Assessment of urban potable water availability and accessibility in Kigali City, Rwanda

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Kampala International University, Master’s Degree of Environmental Management and Development
There is insufficient freshwater in the world for everyone’s essential personal and domestic needs (Johns, 1998). However, lack of distribution nei:works and working systems to extract groundwater or harvest rainwater; exclusion from these services or facilities; inequitable allocation of water resources; and pollution, limit people’s access to sufficient clean water. Large numbers of households in cities around the developing world do not have access to safe drinking water. This study was about urban potable water availability and accessibility in Kigali City, especially in the selected sectors of Gatovu, Nyabugogo, and Kacyiru in Kigali city. A field survey was conducted using questionnaire that were administered to 100 respondents selected purposively. Statistical data analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0, and maps were produced with Arc GIS software version 9.3 and 10. The water quality was studied in the laboratories and analyzed by Rwanda Bureau of Standards (RBS). Pearson correlation coefficient (PrCC) was done to analyze the associations between the Physico~ chemical contaminants in the potable ground water sources such as River water, improved ground well and rain water. The water quality in the available water sources was however below or within acceptable levels of drinking water in comparison with WHO (2011) standards. Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics tested were in the range that is palatable to humans. Furthermore, the existing water network was not evenly distributed over the entire area of Kigali city which showed lack of safe potable water in many areas. Poor availability and accessibility of potable water have negative impacts such as diseases, accidents, insecurity for vulnerable groups like women and children, and economical constraints like high costs of water bills and transport for long distances. Based on current situation, there is need for government to improve rainwater harvesting and management in Kigali city.
A Dissertation resented to the College of Higher Degrees and Research In partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of Master of Science degree in Environmental Management and Development of Kampala International University, Uganda
Urban potable water, Kigali City, Rwanda, Availability, Accessibility, Governance, physico-chemical, Management.