Impact of Wastewater Discharge Activities on Water Quality of Mpazi River in Kigali-Rwanda

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Kampala International University, School of Natural and applied sciences
The study investigated the characteristics of the quality of water in Mpazi River, Kigali Rwanda, highlighting on their sources and the nature of contaminants they constitute. The objectives of the study were to assess the nature of contaminants in the wastewater discharged into Mpanzi River and establish Physio-chemical and bacteriological parameters in the catchment zones and along Mpazi River, Water samples in two seasons (1 in the wet season and 2 in the dry seasons) were collected and analyzed for Physio-chemical characteristics, heavy metals and bacteriological parameters. Samples were collected in 250 ml polyethylene bottles and taken to NUR laboratory for analyses. Temperature, pH, TDS, conductivity and Salinity were directly analyzed in situ using WTW Oxi 340i model meter kit. The results of the study were analyzed using stata version 8.0, SPSS version 16. Data analyses were done by determining Pearson correlations to establish inter-metal, physio-chemical and bacteriological associations to isolate sources of contaminants. It was established that the water in Mpazi River had high levels of suspended particulate contaminants, originating from domestic and industrial activities. The results also revealed that feacal coNforms, E coI4 Biological oxygen demand and heavy metals (Lead and Copper) contaminants were unsafe for human consumption since the pollutant loadings mentioned above were higher than the acceptable standards by REMA (2009) and WHO (2011) for surface water and WHO, 2006 for wastewater to be distharged into the environment. In conclusion, water in Mpazi River is polluted by the increasing discharges of waste waters from household, industries, garages, institutions and other organic pollutants that are disease causing pathogens like Escherichia co/i as well as heavy metals such as lead and copper. There is need for proper effluent and solid wastes treatment before discharge is made into the River,
A Dissertation Presented to the College of Higher Degrees and Research Kampala International University, Uganda, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Environmental Management and Development
Waste water, Water Quality, Rwanda