Clannism and escalation of armed conflicts in Somalia

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Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences
This study sought to investigate the extent to which clannism has contributed the escalation of armed conflicts in Somalia. The focused on three specific objectives aiming at investigating the existence of clannism in Somalia, finding out the role of clan based rebellion against Barre’s regime on escalating inter-clan and intra clan armed conflicts and examining the role of clan based politics and power sharing on the failure of reconciliation efforts and escalation of further armed conflicts. The study adopted a descriptive and it achieved a response rate of 78.9% of the targeted 133 respondents. Stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used in selection of the study sample. The data was processed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software version II. The findings reveal clannism is highly existent in Somalia and is an integral part of society. It was established that the clan system is not the basis for conflicts rather; their deliberate manipulation creates and exacerbates divisions and conflicts. The study .3lso established that Clan-based rebellion in Somalia fell apart after its success to overthrow the regime because of the clash of interests of the clans. However, the study refuted the assertion that the clan based rebellion involved defining the ruling clans in general terms as enemies to be defeated and cleansed since some clans preferred to affiliate with such ruling clans. The study concludes that the clan system is fully established in Somalia and without the manipulative tendencies of clan leaders with vested interests, the clan systems can deliver peaceful ending to armed conflict in Somalia and ensure reconciliation amongst the warring conflicting clans. This study recommends that is need to change the attitudes of the clan leaders that they should give peace a chance to prevail in Somali9. Besides, integration of peace and reconciliation tenets in the Somali education system would sow seeds of peaceful resolution of armed conflicts amongst the Somali clan systems. The study also recommends possible further studies to be undertaken in areas like; whether the plurality of clans in Somalia presents the country with development opportunities vis a vis the challenges posed by clannism; the role on international players in the escalation of armed conflict in Somalia among others.
A thesis presented to the College of higher Degrees and Research Kampala International University Kampala, Uganda in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree Masters in Conflict Resolution and Peace Building
Clannism, Armed conflicts, Somalia