Assessment of the adherence to the acceptable hygiene and sanitation standards in primary schools. a case study of Kasulu Town Council, Tanzania.

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Kampala International University, School of Engineering and Applied Science
Globally, the main factors responsible for diarrhoeal disease are inadequate drinking water, sanitation and hygiene practices. In particular. diarrhoeal disease due to inadequate water and sanitation is one of the two most important factors in childhood mortality in low income countries. The objectives of the study were to find out the causes of poor hygiene and sanitation in primary schools of Kasulu Town Council of Tanzania, to determine the effects of poor hygiene and sanitation on the performance of primary schools, to find out the sanitary facilities commonly used in maintaining proper hygiene and sanitation in primary schools and finally to explore the strategies put in place to ensure the adherence to the acceptable standards of hygiene and sanitation in primary schools. The study was carried in Kasulu Town council in five (5) primary schools comprised of 117 respondents whereby simple random sampling and purposive sampling were u~ed to select the sample. The study revealed that ignorance was the greatest cause or challenge leading to poor hygiene and sanitation in the primary schools and surrounding communities within the schools in Kasulu town council while lack of guidelines on sanitation and hygiene by the ministries, parents and teachers was the least, Diarrhoea is the highest disease caused by poor hygiene and sanitation. Absenteeism and poor performance is the other leading effect while the least was dehydration. Waste bins are the most common hygiene and sanitary facilities that are in all the primary schools while the least is boreholes. In general, all the sample primary schools do not meet most of the minimum required WASH standards because of the inadequate hygiene and sanitation facilities, lack of clean water and safe water, poor sensitization and inadequate funding hence pose a threat to the pupils’ lives while at school. The greatest measure put in place is sensitization of pupils, teachers and parents about the benefits of maintaining good hygiene and sanitation while the least measure used is the implementation of policies. Recommendations of the study are; more robust methods of sensitization and public participation, increase the sanitary facilities and where they exist have frequent maintenance, guidelines on WASH must be developed and emphasized, the government must allocate more funds to the MOH and MoEVT and finally proper coordination by all the concerned parties to a schools’ hygiene and sanitation condition should be a priority.
A dissertation submitted to the school of engineering and applied sciences in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelors of Science Degree in Environmental Management of Kampala International University.
Acceptable hygiene, sanitation standards, Kasulu Town Council