Impacts of urbanization on the water resources: a case study of Makindye division, Kampala district.

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Kampala International University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
In Uganda, especially in Makindye division- Kampala District, the impact of Urbanization on the Water resources has greatly increased in recent years due to uncontrolled and poorly managed human activities such as poor waste management, establishment of urban agriculture in wetlands and among others. Water resources have been one of the environmental resources that have benefited Uganda in terms of development (urbanization) but however, this has affected their quality and the quantity hence leading to severe environmental problems. This research study was carried out with the main objective of ensuring coordinated development and management of water and related resources without affecting environmental systems by analyzing the urbanization characteristics, identifying the dominant water resources, examining the impacts of urbanization on water resources and finding out the possible ways of conserving and managing the existing resources. The study was descriptive in nature comprising of both qualitative and quantitative designs considering the study population above 1 5$ivhich included both male and female and a total of 102 respondents was chosen as the sample size, this was determined using Kish and Leslie formula. The study considered two types of data namely, primary and secondary data, which were obtained through, taking photographs, questionnaires, interviews and review of relevant literature of scholarly materials. The study findings (Data) were mainly using frequencies and percentages which were late presented in form of bar graphs, frequency distribution tables and photographs. The urbanization characteristics of the study area included settlement (residential and commercial), urban agriculture, trade and commerce, fishing and among others. The dominant water resources that were outlined in the study area included; wetlands, streams, lake, wells, aquifers and rivers. On the other hand, the impacts of urbanization on water resources included; pollution, total dry off, decline in productivity, and loss of biodiversity. Also the possible ways of conserving the existing water resources included; proper urban planning, creating awareness, proper waste management, public education and protection laws and acts. Findings indicated that there was a strong negative relationship between urbanization and water resources in the study area. The study has made recommendations including; increasing sensitization to the public, extending free waste storage facilities and services, advocacy of effective policies, promoting greater transparency in response to public concerns and promoting proper urban planning.
A research report submitted to School of Engineering and Applied Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor Degree in Environmental Management of Kampala International University, Uganda
Urbanization, Water resources, Kampala District., Uganda