A study to assess the attitude of healthcare workers to infection prevention and control in Kampala International University teaching hospital, Uganda

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Kampala International University. School of Health Sciences Western Campus
With high prevalence of infectious diseases such as; HIV, HBV, HCV among others; especially in sub-Saharan Africa, health workers find themselves at the brunt of acquiring these diseases while they are working. In order to ensure safety within the auspice of their work, infection prevention and control policies implementation as regards to accidental exposure to bloodborne viruses are therefore vital. Prevention of blood exposure, through safer practices, barrier precautions, safer needle devices, and other innovations, is the best way to prevent infection with HIV and other blood-borne pathogens. Methodology.Observational cross sectional study was carried out in Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, located in south western Uganda. Healthcare workers from various departments were recruited between June and July and questioned concerning various facets of infection prevention to blood-borne pathogens, management and prophylaxis following accidental exposure to blood and bodily fluids suspected to habour infectious viruses; HBV and HIV. Data obtained were coded, tabulated, analyzed to determine means, frequencies and ranges, and presented using tables, graphs and pie charts. Results.All the respondents were aware of infection prevent measures particularly as concerning accidental exposure to blood or body fluid and post exposure prophylaxis. Majority of the respondents felt that the Personal Protective Equipment were always available (62%). 42% of the respondents reported to have been accidentally exposed to blood or body fluid between June 2012 to June 2013. Majority of those exposed were students at 33% then followed by nurses and clinical officers at 28% each. Of those exposed, only 27% reported to the relevant management. Majority of those who failed to report were students at 100% and clinical officers at 80%. Majority of the exposed were by percutaneous means and least by permucosal means: percutaneous 72%, mucous membrane 11% and non intact skin 17%. Of those exposed, 89% were exposed blood whereas 11% to bodily fluids. For those percutaneously exposed, 69%, was by needle, 8% by scalpel and 23% by suture needle. Major cause of percutaneous injury was unexpected patient movement (31%) and suturing (31%), and then followed needle recapping at 23% and least causes were disposal of used needles and IM/IV line insertion at 8% and 7% respectively. Hepatitis B vaccination rate among the healthcare workers in KIUTH was 54%. 61% of nurses, 43% of clinical officers, 90% of lab technicians and 27% of students were vaccinated against Reasons for not having vaccination include unavailability at KIUTH (74%), expensive (22%) and scared of side effects of the vaccine (4%). Routine checking of HBsAg of source person after occupational exposure stands at 44%. 16% of the respondents have ever been exposed to blood or bodily fluid of a confirmed HIV positive patient and of those 57% utilized PEP Anti retroviral therapy. Of the remaining 43%, the reasons for not taking PEP ART was that they never met the criteria for initiation of PEP ART (50%) and 50% were scared of the stigma associated with it both at work and at home. The ones, who failed to utilize PEP because of the associated stigma, were all students. Conclusion.Prevention of blood exposure, through safer practices, barrier precautions, safe practice, and other innovations, is the best way to prevent infection with HIV and other blood borne pathogens.
A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of bachelor in medicine and bachelor of surgeryof Kampala International University.
Attitude of healthcare workers, Infection prevention, Kampala International University teaching hospital