The roles of free radicals in the red blood cell damage in chronic kidney diseases:

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International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in older people. However, while young her CKD patients usually experience a progressive loss of renal function, his 30% of his CKD patients aged 65 years and older have stable disease. Red blood cells are constantly exposed to high concentrations of oxygen that promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within 24 hours, 3% of haemoglobin is oxidized to form superoxide radicals. Studies have shown that haemoglobin itself is a catalyst for free radical reactions, and redox balance is maintained by the presence of antioxidant enzymes and low molecular weight reducing agents. Kidney tubular cells are rich in mitochondria. This is because reabsorption of solutes requires energy, making kidney cells particularly susceptible to oxidative stress and damage. In addition, free radicals and preoxidants produced during acute kidney injury (AKI) and CKD can exacerbate the damage. It may also play a role in the development of severe complications in distant organs commonly seen in AKI and CKD. B. Cardiovascular disease and neurological complications. Several studies have shown that plasma markers of oxidative stress are elevated in CKD patients, indicating increased systemic oxidative stress. Biomarkers for this disease are found in blood, serum, urine, and saliva, and the use of these fluids in clinical practice can help monitor disease
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Free Radicals, Red Blood Cell Damage, Chronic Kidney Diseases