Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water, soil and rice grown around river Yobe, Nigeria

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Kampala International University. School of Engineering Science
The study was carried out to determine the levels of pollution, by selected metals. in water, soil and rice grown around River Yobe, Nigeria. The samples were collected from four different locations and were analyzed for physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and pollution indices. The pH of water and soil samples were found to be within the range of 6.47 ± 0.05 — 6.85 ± 0.13 and 6.00 — 7.70 respectively. The EC, Alkalinity, chloride, hardness, TDS and turbidity of the water samples were in the ranges of 2.12 ± 0.27—2.67 ± 0.35 ds/m; 67.23 + 0.43 —92.33 ± 0.58 mg/L; 0.73 ± 0.02—0.89 ± 0.08 mg/L; 26.67 + 2.31 — 35.67 ± 0.58 mg/L 1357 ± 1.08— 1708 + 1.99 mg/L and 2.23 ± 0.77— 164.20 ± 0.32 FTTJ respectively. The nutrient concentrations in this study showed that the soil samples had low (< 100 kg! Acre) levels of’ nitrogen. Also phosphorous levels in sites P1 and P3 were found to be low in concentrations while medium (100-200 kg! Acre) levels were registered in sites P2 and P4. High (> 200 kg/Acre) level of potassium level was recorded in the sampling sites. MC and AC of plants were within the recommended ranges. The study found out that in water samples Ci’, Fe and Pb had higher values than the permissible limit set by NSDWQ. In the soil samples, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb were found to be above the WHO permissible limits. In rice grain samples Cu and Zn concentrations were also above the WHO standard limits. In rice leave samples the concentrations Cr and Zn were found to be within the acceptable limits. The contamination factor and geoaccumulation index in all the sampling sites indicated low to moderately contamination levels while the transfer of Pb from soil to plants was found to be in high levels. The findings of this research work proved that the samples collected were polluted by the metals under study.
A dissertation submitted to the department of physical sciences, school of engineering and applied sciences, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of master of science in chemistry of kampala international university
Heavy metal pollution in water, Soil and rice grown