Department of Pathology and Microbiology

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
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    Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Clinical Isolates at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2019) Musinguzi, Benson; Turugurwa, Joseph; Mwesigye, James; Kassaza, Kennedy; Byarugaba, Fredrick; Kabanda, Taseera
    Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most frequent opportunistic pathogens causing a range of infections and being resistant for beta-lactamases (ESBL) and Carbapenemases. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and molecular characterization establishing the phenotypes and genotypes associated with drug resistance, an antibiogram of genotypically positive isolates for resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical isolates at MRRH. Materials and Methods: A laboratory-based descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2018 to May 2019 at MRRH. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by cultural and biochemical methods. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae was tested by double-disc synergy test, Carbapenemase production by MHT, Boronic Acid or EDTA test using Meropenem phenotypically and both resistance confirmed genotypically by Multiplex PCR. Results: Out of 1055 clinical isolates, 298 (28.2%) were found positive
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    Incidence and Etiology of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection among Admitted Patients at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2019-09) Musinguzi, Benson; Kabajulizi, Immaculate; Mpeirwe, Moses; Turugurwa, Joseph; Kabanda, Taseera
    Introduction: Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection is the most common hospital acquired infection worldwide. Urinary Tract Infections among catheterised patients are on rise regardless of antibiotic use and this is due to erratic use of antibiotics, treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance and em- ergency of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing bacteria leading to patient distress, increased healthcare costs, long hospital stay and poor patient response to antibiotics. In Uganda, no previous studies have sought to study the burden of CAUTI among catheterized patients, the bacterial pathogens involved and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns yet there is upsurge in antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens. The effective management of patients suffering from Catheter Associated Urinary Tract infection (CAUTI) relays on the identification of uropathogens that cause CAUTI and the selection of an effective antibiotic agent to the uropathen in question. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine incidence, etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the uropathogens causing Catheter Open Access Associated Urinary Tract Infections among patients with indwelling catheters at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital. Methods: Using a descriptive prospective observational hospital-based study, the study was conducted on 150 catheterized patients recruited from Emergency, Obstetrics and gynecology, Medical, Maternity and Surgical wards at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital between April and May 2019. The urine samples from study participants were processed in Kabale RRH microbiology laboratory as per standard operating procedures.
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    Drug resistant plasmodium falciparum parasites: a review of the resistance and failure of malaria eradication
    (IJBAMR, 2015-12) Maniga, Josephat Nyabayo; Emmanuel, Eilu; Onkoba, Sarah Kemuma; Aliero, Adamu Almustapha; Miruka, Conrad Ondieki; Micheni, Lisa Nkatha
    Malaria infection remains the leading vector borne disease in the world today. Given the increasing report of resistance or poor responses to artemisinin based combination therapies (ACTS), the sub-Saharan African region affected by the disease might receive a repeat of what happened during the emergence of chloroquine and sulfadoxine pyremethamine resistance. If such case arises, the malaria control efforts in the region may be compromised and the little success gained of intervention efforts may be eroded. Although the world has currently embraced the use of recommended artemisinin combination based therapies (ACTS) for the treatment of uncomplicated p. malaria. Current assessment of drug susceptibility and level of circulating resistant Plasmodium parasites is not full elucidated. Assessment of P. falciparum is thus necessary to sustain quality control programmes, appropriate use of therapy, and health policy advice in respect of malaria management in countries where malaria is endemic. This current paper brings out the challenge of antimalarial resistance in malaria eradication agenda.
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    The economic impact attributable to brucellosis among goat farms in Peninsula Malaysia and cost benefit analysis
    (Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences, 2015-01) Bamaiyi, Pwaveno H.;
    Brucellosis is known to cause economic losses to livestock farmers around the world. The amount of direct economic loss suffered by farmers has not been reported in Malaysia. This study reports the cost benefit analysis of goat farming and the economic impact attributable to brucellosis in goat farms in four states of Malaysia. Data about production indices and management was collected from farms through interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The cost-benefit analysis of goat farming in Malaysia shows that it is a profitable business with 42 farms yielding about RM 2 million (USD 645,161.29) a month. Comparing fifteen farms from the four states when they had no brucellosis infection and after they were infected with brucellosis using the culling of the goats and farm value as criteria the fifteen farms had a financial loss of at least RM 156,212.50 (USD 50,391.13) which was found to be significant (P<0.05) at 95% confidence level using Wilcoxon signed rank test with IBM SPSS version 20. There was no significant difference in the economic impact on the farms between the various states at 95% confidence level using Kruskal-Wallis test with IBM SPSS version 20. Based on reported seroprevalence rate of 2.9% using complement fixation test it was estimated that annually the economic impact due to caprine brucellosis was RM7,974263.8 (USD 2,572343.1). This study highlights the colossal waste to the economy due to caprine brucellosis and underscores the urgent need to take more drastic measures to eradicate brucellosis in Malaysia through a combination of test and slaughter policy with vaccination of goats and a total ban on importation of live goats into Malaysia from any endemic country.
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    Study on antibacterial efficacy of different honey types in South Western Nigeria against wound associated bacteria
    (Journal of Apitherapy, 2017-03-10) Adeyemo, Rasheed Omotayo; Torimiro, Nkem; Akinola, Saheed Adekunle; Lawal, Sodiq Kolawole; Abolarinwa, Tesleem Olatunde; Adewoye, Wasiu Olalekan
    The study assessed and compared the antibacterial activities of different honey types in Southwest Nigeria. It also compared antibacterial potency of the honey with a standard antibiotic. This was with a view to ascertain and providing information on cheaper alternative potent antibacterial product of natural source as well to confirm the antibacterial efficacy of the honey in Southwest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The sensitivity testing of honey samples was determined using agar-well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of honey samples was determined using broth tube dilution method. Minimum bactericidal concentration of honey samples was determined. The data obtained were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results: The zone of inhibitions exhibited by all honey samples against the test bacteria ranged between 6 ± 0.0 and 30.7 ± 1.2 mm. The death rate ranges between 52.1% and 94.6% in the dark amber honey sample (H9) after 120 min of contact time at the same concentration. Conclusion: In this study, super dark amber honey shows the highest antimicrobial property which compared favorably with the standard antibiotic (streptomycin). This honey has shown to have a potent broad spectrum antibacterial activity. However, further studies are recommended to assess its practicality in terms of use in the clinical setting.