Clinical Medicine and Dentistry

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 11
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    Descriptive analysis of heavy metals content of beef from eastern Uganda and their safety for public consumption
    (Kampala International University, 2021-02) Keneth, Iceland; Kasozi, Yunusu; Hamira, Gerald; Zirintunda, Khalaf F.; Alsharif, Farag M.A.; Altalbawy, Justine; Ekou, Andrew; Tamale, Kevin; Matama, Fred; Ssempijja, Robert; Muyinda, Francis; Kawooya, Pius; Theophilus, Hellen; Kisakye, Paul; Bogere, Henry; Matovu, Leonard; Omadang, Patrick; Etiang, Joseph; Mbogua, John Ochieng; Juma, Lawrence; Obado Osuwat, Regan; Mujinya, Gaber; El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, Otim
    In this study, we initiated an effort to generate information about beef safety in Uganda. Our entry point was to assess by atomic absorption spectrophotometry the levels of essential elements copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), and non-essential elements lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd) in 40 beef samples collected from within and around Soroti (Uganda). The information was used to evaluate the safety of consuming such beef against the World Health Organization (WHO) limits. The latter was accomplished by (i) estimating the daily intake (EDI) of each metal in the study area, (ii) modeling the non-cancer health risk using the target hazard quotient (THQ) and (iii) modeling the cancer risk using the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The study finds that the mean concentrations (±95% CI) and EDI were in the order of Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cu > Cd. Cancer risk was found to be due to Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb and significantly higher in children than adults. The latter particularly demonstrates the importance of Ni poisoning in the study area. Overall, while essential elements in our beef samples were below WHO limits (hence no health risks), non-essential elements had high health and cancer risks due to higher levels of Cr and N
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    A narrative review on the basic and clinical aspects of the novel SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19
    (Kampala International University, 2020-07) Joseph, Hokello; Adhikarimayum, Lakhikumar Sharma; Girish C., Shukla; Mudit, Tyagi
    The novel SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for causing the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), a systemic infection in humans. Ever since it was first detected in December 2019, the number of confirmed cases has continued to increase. Within a short period, this disease has become a global issue, and therefore it is characterized as a pandemic. The current understanding and explanations are based on epidemiological, clinical and physiological observations. Besides, it remains a great challenge, as much remains to be understood about this new disease-causing virus. Therefore, we seek to provide an overview of SARS-CoV-2, including its classification, origin, genomic structure, replication cycle, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatments, prevention and vaccine options. We conducted a literature search for the articles published up to August 2020 using the keywords ‘SARCoV-2’ and ‘COVID19’ in medical databases; PubMed, google scholar, EMBASE, and web of science. Based on the information collected, the emerging COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, exhibits strong infectivity but less virulence in terms of severity of disease and mortality rates in certain age groups. It inflicts more damage in terms of peoples’ health and well-being, social life, and global economic impacts. Unfortunately, there is no adequate global and standard response to this pandemic to date, and each country is facing a crisis based on its situation, expertise, and hypotheses. While there is no effective therapy and vaccine against the novel SARS-CoV-2 yet, preventive measures are the only tool available to our disposal to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ongoing and future research is focused more on developing standard t
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    Isolation and Antibiogram of Salmonella spp. from Quails in a Farm from Kelantan, Malaysia
    (Journal of veterinary Advances, Global Researchers Journals, 2015-12-30) Bamaiyi, Pwaveno H.
    Salmonellosis is a major public health problem around the world affecting both animals and humans. A study was carried out to elucidate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and antibiogram of the isolates in quails in a commercial farm located in Kelantan, Malaysia using cloacal swabs and standard isolation techniques for Salmonella species and the standard disk diffusion method for the antibiotic sensitivity tests. Ninety quails in two groups of 45 each, aged 3 weeks and 2 months, were sampled using sterile cotton swabs and transport media. The results showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in the quails was 11.11% (CI= 6.19, 19.28) and all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds aged 3 weeks compared with the birds aged 2 months using Chi square at 95% confidence level. The positive identification of Salmonella spp. in quails may have public health implications due to the rising outbreak of Salmonella spp. associated food poisoning cases. The resistance of the Salmonella spp. to ampicillin which is a common antibiotic in man and animals adds weight to the growing call for the prudent use of antibiotics in human and animal populations around the globe. Farms and food handlers should maintain strict hygiene to protect public health at all times.
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    Non-physician Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Evolving Role of Physicians
    (International Journal of Health policy and management, 2016) Kyamanywa, Patrick
    Responding to critical shortages of physicians, most sub-Saharan countries have scaled up training of non-physician clinicians (NPCs), resulting in a gradual but decisive shift to NPCs as the cornerstone of healthcare delivery. This development should unfold in parallel with strategic rethinking about the role of physicians and with innovations in physician education and in-service training. In important ways, a growing number of NPCs only renders physicians more necessary – for example, as specialized healthcare providers and as leaders, managers, mentors, and public health administrators. Physicians in sub-Saharan Africa ought to be trained in all of these capacities. This evolution in the role of physicians may also help address known challenges to the successful integration of NPCs in the health system.
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    2015 Outbreak of Canine Rabies in Malaysia: Review, Analysis and Perspectives
    (Journal of Veterinary Advances, 2015-12-30) Bamaiyi Pwaveno H.
    Rabies is an acute fatal zoonotic encephalitis caused by a Lyssavirus belonging to the family rhabdoviridae responsible for about 69000 deaths annually. In July, 2015 Malaysia lost its rabies free status due to an outbreak of canine rabies that started from Perlis state and later moved to Kedah and Pulau Pinang states of Malaysia. This study was carried out to review available data on rabies and determine the incidence of rabies during the outbreak, the susceptible population of dogs, the number of dogs culled, the number of dogs vaccinated and lessons that can be learned from the outbreak using data principally from the OIE and other public domain sources. Statistical calculations employed chi square analysis at 95% confidence level using SPSS version 22. The incidence of rabies was 0.10% (CI= 0.05%, 0.18%). There was significant difference (P<0.0001) between the number of cases, number of susceptible dogs, number of dogs destroyed and number of dogs vaccinated between the 3 states in Malaysia with Perlis having the highest number of cases, Kedah having the highest number of susceptible dogs, Pulau Pinang having the highest number of culled dogs but with the least number of vaccinated dogs and Kedah having the highest number of vaccinated dogs. Perlis had the highest number of cases followed by Pulau Pinang. Kedah with the highest number of vaccinations recorded only 1 case of rabies. There was no case of human rabies despite numerous dog bite cases during the outbreak. The proximity of the 3 states especially Perlis to a rabies endemic country must have led to the outbreak of the infection. Mass vaccination of dogs along with short term targeted culling is important in stopping rabies outbreaks. Territories within close proximity to endemic locations must maintain more surveillance against transboundary diseases like rabies. Post exposure prophylaxis is necessary immediately after exposure to rabies to prevent human infection.