Environmental Management

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    The phenology, distribution, and uses of Azadirachta Indica A. Juss (Neem Tree) in Taura Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria
    (Kampala International University, College of Environmental Science and management, 2023-10) Ahmed, Aliyu Maje
    This study determined the phenology, distribution, and uses of Azadirachta indica A. Juss in Taura Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: a) determine the phenology of Azadirachta indica in Taura Local Government Area; b) determine the distribution of Azadirachta indica in Taura Local Government Area; and c) determine the level of usage of Azadirachta indica among small scale farmers and administrators in Taura Local Government Area, Jigawa State Nigeria. The study used a descriptive survey and longitudinal (observational) design. Azadirachta indica phenology observation of leaf, flower, and fruits in dry and rainy seasons. The phonological activity in the Neem tree can be inferred that the vegetative and reproductive phenology occurred once a year based on the seasonal pattern of the area. Azadirachta indica distribution was established through GPS and GIS software. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to identify and plot the map of the increasing number of Neem trees in the area. The uses of Neem were categorized into three: direct use, ecological uses, and medicinal uses. The study found that Azadirachta indica outnumbered the native trees due to Neem tree characteristics that aid its environmental colonisation. State Government should make a policy to enhance the environmental conditions through tree planting, to improve soils, afforestation, agricultural activities, and climate change mitigation.
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    Modelling and navigation of solar electric power potential and generation in the four regions of Uganda
    (Kampala International University, College of Environmental Science and management, 2021-08) Mundu, Muhamad Mustafa
    The modelling and navigation of solar electric power potential and generation in the four regions of Uganda was aimed at enhancing the potential use of Uganda’s colossal renewable solar energy resources by integrating the power generated from it to the already existing renewable hydropower and conventional power generation to boost the national grid supply to rapidly realize sustainable development goals. Thus, a holistic study was carried out on climatological and meteorological distribution within the four regions of Uganda to fish out the hot spot places with high probability of sunshine hours, clearness index and wind speed for solar deployment. This quest was proceeded with the acquisition of quadragenarious baseline satellite data for 122 districts from 1984 – 2018 from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources and AccuWeather for weather forecasts. Moreover, the on-station (measured) data was acquired from four weather stations (Lira, Tororo, Kampala and Mbarara districts) from Uganda National Meteorological Authority and the department of physics, Makerere University. Subsequently, the data acquisition was followed by data filtration, organization and development of models. The Haversine algorithms and Biharmonic equations were used to develop models which are functions of terrestrial coordinates on the Earth’s surface. The analysis was supported by Microsoft Excel, Matlab/Simulink, OriginLab 8.0 and PVGIS. Besides, the test rig facility consists of two PV generators, pre-calibrated digital multi-meters, electrical clamp multi-meter, thermocouples, non-contact infrared sensors and digital anemometer. The common statistical tools for analytical validation used in the present study include the 𝑅2 for goodness of fit, RMSE, MAPE, MARE and APD. The coefficient of determination 𝑅2 for all the models developed were all approaching unity which indicates the strength of the models developed. There was good agreement between the simulated and on-station data. The empirical and comparative validation with the locally stationed meteorological data and globally existing models, support the robustness of the present models. The findings were as follows: (i) clearness index ranges for the different regions of Uganda: Northern (0.5288−0.6077), Eastern (0.5609−0.6077), Central (0.5123−0.6224) and Western (0.5123−0.5893), (ii) the relative sunshine hours models validated with the statistical tools; RMSE (0.0635-0.2248) and MAPE (0.1620-2.5413) compared well with the previous studies. (iii) the navigation results for sunshine hours show the order of regional distribution as; 𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛>𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑛>𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙>𝑤𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛 region, (iv) that northern and eastern regions are favoured with SPP of 823.9 – 831.6 𝑊𝑚−2 and 829.2 – 822.2 𝑊𝑚−2, respectively whereas the central and western regions are less favoured with 822.5 – 809.0 𝑊𝑚−2 and 797.8 – 788.5 𝑊𝑚−2, respectively. That; Biharmonic equation has the capacity to model solar power potential field problems, in this case, northern and eastern regions are most favoured with solar power potential than the central and western regions though the central region has strong winds in some locations of up to 3.49 𝑚𝑠−1. Furthermore, the study also revealed that in terms of solar power generation, the most favoured region are of the order; northern region (132.8 𝑊𝑚−2), eastern region (132.7 𝑊𝑚−2), western region (127.2 𝑊𝑚−2), and central region (119.6 𝑊𝑚−2). Generally, the study provided a road map for deployment of solar facilities, for policy making and agrometeorology development in Uganda and other parts of the world with similar climatological features.
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    Grazing effects on the riparian vegetation and human community along river Benue, Adamawa State, Nigeria
    (Kampala International University, 2018-10) Kwabe, Madube Tumba
    This study purposely of investigated the grazing effects on riparian vegetation and human communities along river Benue, Adamawa states. The objectives were; i) to determine grazing effects on the plant community; ii) to determine the socio economic effects of grazing along river Benue on human community; and iii) to identify effective management strategies for conservation and sustainability of riparian area along river Benue. The study used cross-sectional and observational survey design. The target population was 550 participants who included: sixty-five (65) River Basin Development Authority, fifty-five (55) State Environment Management Agency, twelve (12) Non-Governmental Organizations, thirty-six (36) Community Base Organizations and four hundred and thirty (430) local community members. Sample size of 232 was determined using Sloven‘s formula. The data instruments included questionnaires, interview and observation guides. The questionnaires response rate of the study was 96 percent of the contacted respondents. Data was analyzed using inferential techniques, frequency and percentage distribution. Tables and graphs were used to present the data. Study revealed that grazing has significant effect on the riparian plant species community with decrease in species growth, decrease in palatable native species diversity, decrease in plant productivity of the riparian, decrease in species composition, increase in exotic species diversity, increase in native unpalatable plant species. furthermore, the study found that there was increase in plant extinction, increase in plant diebark and decrease in the vigor and resilience status of plant species along river Benue. Again the study found out that there was variation in plant species density between the grazed and ungrazed sites and also, a slight difference on the species attributes amidst the upper and lower riparian. The study indicated a very strong positive socio-economic effect of grazing along river Benue. including insecurity, destruction of water sources, poor quality of life (poor health quality), increase in communicable diseases e.g. Epidemic Cholera, hepatitis and typhoid, poor sanitation, limited access to safe and quality water. Furthermore, the study revealed the destruction of habitat and decrease in fish productivity decrease in wild foods (fruits/vegetable e.g. cashew nuts, hackberries) and medicinal plants e.g. combretum nigrican and lamiaceae; decrease in the navigability level of riparian water; destruction or upsetting of riparian educational potential (53 percent). The study revealed that the most effective management strategies for this riparian area included but limited to: fencing strategy, alternative watering point strategy, and using shade and shelter grazing strategy. Considering the fact that degraded riparian environments demand innovative and pragmatic approaches to restoration and significant of the effects of grazing in riparian area along river Benue, and the need for sustainable vegetation cover and economic activities, the study recommends that the Government of Adamawa State together with Federal Government should strengthens grazing related policies promoting awareness of the negative effects of traditional grazing and ensuring the adoption of best grazing management practices such as tree planting and establishing Grass reserves, specific watering points e.g. ground tanks within pastures, planting palatable forage species e.g. on depleted upland areas, programing prescribed burning as a vegetation treatment improvement, system improving Stockmanship through traing , engineering interventions for invasive species e.g. Cenhrus cilliaris. Herd management and animal husbandry practices of cows Sheep and goats, Supplementation of feeds Culling and fencing techniques.