Masters of Micro-biology

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    Nasal carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus among health workers at Kampala International University Teaching Hospital in Bushenyi, Uganda
    (Kampala International University, School of Health Sciences (Western Campus), 2018-06) Abimana B., Justus
    Background: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is commonly encountered and it’s a threat to health care services because of its ability to resist other antibiotic classes in addition to beta lactams. Health Care Workers are important reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus and yet there is insufficient literature on their carriage rates of Methicillin Resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from health care workers of Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, south Western Uganda. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study involving the culturing of nasal swabs from Health Care Workers at Kampala International University Teaching Hospital was carried out. Phenotypic and genotypic screening MRSA from isolated Staphylococcus aureus was done using cefoxitin disc and mecA gene amplification respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the MRSA and MSSA isolates was performed using Kiby_Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Out of the 97 participants, 28(28.8%) were nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus of which 13 (46.4%) were phenotypically MRSA (resistant to cefoxitin) and only 8 (28.6%) were genotypically MRSA (had mecA gene). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (both phenotypic and genotypic) isolates were all resistant to beta lactam drugs but susceptible to lincosamides, glycopeptides and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant strains is high among health care workers and meca gene is not the only genetic basis for resistance to methicilin drugs. Methicillin resistant strains showed higher resistance rate to commonly used antibiotics than methicillin susceptible strains. Recommendations: Future studies should consider whole genome sequencing to identify other genetic markers coding for methicillin resistance.
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    Antibacterial activity of Carica papaya and common antibiotics against methicillin resistant staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from Kampala International University Teaching Hospital wards Surfaces, Bushenyi, Uganda
    (Kampala International University. School of Health Sciences Western Campus, 2018-10) Abubakar, Sunusi Adam
    Siaph;’kwoccu.s epickrmk(Is’ is coagulase-negative staph>lococci that 1requentl~ cau* de~ ice or surger>-associated nosocomial infections worldwide. Methicillin resistant S. epidennidix (MRSIi) have been reported with very serious clinical implications. The antibiotics in clinical use are associated with high resistance levels and non-affordability due to high prices. (‘arica papai a that has been documented to have antimicrobial properties might be able to o{Thr a solution. This study was therefore aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of (‘. papaya and common antibiotics against MRSE isolated from wards surfaces of Kampala International 1.‘niversity [‘caching Ilospital. t‘ganda. S~~ab samples collected from selected ward surfaces were inoculated on Mannitol salt agar 11w isolation of,S epickwn,idlc. The isolates were tested against common antibiotics (Amikacin 3Opg. C’efa,olin (‘elbxitin 3Ogg. I rimethoprim-sullhmethoxa,ole (‘iproflo~acin 3Ogg and Gcntamicin 3Ogg) using the disc diffusion method. isolates resistant to (‘efoxitin ~scre subjected .0 C’ papa) a leafand seed crude extracts using agar ‘veil diffusion method. Minimum Inhihiton ,MIC) and Bactericidal concentration (MBC) ofthe C papaya leafand seed crude extracts were ictermined. mecA gene was detected from MRSI! using conventional Polymerase chain reaction. Jut ofthe 363 swab samples analyzed. 112 (30.85%) prevalence ofS. ephiermidis was obtained. 3oth C’ pcq;c(rci leaf and seed crude extracts (methanol and acetone) 4’~hibited antibaeteri,l ictivit> against MRSL with MlC’s and MI3Cs ranges of250 to 31.2mg/mi and 125 to 31.3mg ml 1w leaf and seed extracts respectively. Out of 112 S. epidermidis isolates. II (Q.8°’o) were found ~esistant to (‘efoxitin and all vicre pusiti~e for mecA gene. I his study concludes that £ epIdermicus is present in Kill- ElI wards surfaces. It was resistant to rnmethopnm-sulfamethox~ole (80.4%) and sensitive to Cefazolin (93.8%) and all the 1(9.8%) isolates resistant to Cefoxitin were positive for mecA gene. (‘arica papaya leaf and eec] crude extracts (methanol and acetone) were effective against MRSK. It is therefore recommended that KRJ-TII should use stronger disinfectants such as those containing phenol. ‘iguanides and halogens to decontaminate wards surfaces. In addition. Irimethoprim ulfainethw~aeole should not be prescribed in cases £ epiciermidis is implicated. (‘aricci papa,v 2afand seed crude extracts could be a source ofnovel antibiotics for treatment ofMRSI
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    Malaria-Helminthiasis co-infection and Anaemia among children in Bugesera District, Rwanda
    (Kampala International University, 2015) Umwanankundi, Marcelline
    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis coinfections in the induction of anemia and severe malaria among children (1 – 15 years). Methodology: Cross sectional study was carried out in fifteen health centers of Bugesera District, Rwanda - between April 2014 and October 2014. A total of 465 patients were included for this study. Of these, 210 (45.2%) were males and 255 (54.8%) were females. Finger prick blood and stool were collected and examined according to the established standard methods.
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    Evaluation of the antifungal activity of callistemon citrinus leaf extracts against saprophytic zygomycetes isolated in Bushenyi District, Uganda
    (Kampala International University, 2013) Micheni, Nkatha Lisa
    ygomycetes are saprophytic filamentous fungi that are abundant in soil and decaying matter. They cause severe infections in immunocompromised persons with very high mortality rates of 75-95%. The antifungal drugs in clinical use are associated with severe adverse effects and are not affordable due to their high prices. This calls for a search of antifungal drugs that are affordable, easily accessible and effective against Zygomycetes. Callistemon citrinus which is a cosmopolitan plant has been reported to have antimicrobial properties and might be able to offer a solution.