Department of Physiology

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
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    Hypoglycaemic Effect of Lycopene in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
    (British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 2015-03-31) Ejike, Daniel Eze
    Aim: The study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic potential of lycopene in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Methodology: To achieve this, a total of thirty (30) adult Wistar rats of both sexes were used. The animals were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared (60 mg/kg body weight) of STZ. Diabetes was confirmed by the presence of high blood glucose ≥ 200 after 72 hr. Diabetic animals were divided into six (6) groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) comprising five animals each. Animals in Group 1 (Diabetic control) and Group 2 (Normal control) received 0.5 ml of olive oil, while those in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were administered 10, 20, 40 and 2 mg/kg b w of lycopene and glibenclamide respectively orally once daily for a period of four weeks. After the last day of treatments, all animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected and the serum separated for determination of serum insulin concentration. The liver tissue was excised and homogenized in equivalent volumes of phosphate buffer for the determination of hepatic glucokinase enzyme activity. Results: The results obtained showed that lycopene at all doses significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose concentration steadily from (431.4±48.84 mg/dL) to (171.1±7.65, 118.4±1.97 and 100.8±6.89 mg/dL) after four weeks of treatment. The Serum insulin level was increased from (3.02±0.24 μIU/mL) to (4.02±0.70, 3.96±1.41 and 5.06±0.96 μIU/mL), but was not significant (P>0.05), when compared with diabetic control animals. The activity of hepatic glucokinase was significantly (P<0.05) increased from (8.78±1.11 ng/mL) to (11.96±0.54, 14.23±0.88 and 15.78±0.27 ng/mL), when compared with diabetic control group. Conclusion: It is therefore, suggested that antidiabetic-activity may be linked to enhanced glucokinase enzyme activity and not due to increased serum insulin level as the elevation was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) when compared with the diabetic control group. It is recommended that, lycopene may be used as a dietary component in controlling sustained hyperglycaemia in diabetes.
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    Effects of lycopene on kidney antioxidant enzyme activities and functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats
    (Scientific Publishing Group, 2015) Daniel, EzeEjike; Mohammed, Aliyu; Tanko, Yusuf; Ahmed, Abubakar
    The present study assessed the effects of lycopene on kidney antioxidant enzymes activities and functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.Diabetes was induced in animals by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. Thereafter the animals were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I and II (Normal control + olive oil and Diabetic control + olive oil)while Group III to VI were treated with (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of lycopene and 2 mg/kg glibenclamide) respectively. Alltreatments were givenonce daily orally for four weeks. Results obtained showed that blood glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. MDAconcentration was reduced in kidney tissue, with increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in diabetic animals administered with lycopene when compared with diabetic control group.There was significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of serum sodium ion and reduction in serum urea level in diabetic rats treated with lycopene when compared with the diabetic control group. Histological findings showed improved renal architecture as reflected by reduced glomerular and tubular necrosisin all treated groups when compared with control group. It can be concluded that lycopene protects against diabetes-induced kidney damage through elevation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and improved renal dysfunction in diabetic animals.
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    Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model
    (NIH Public Access, 2015-11-18) Barasa, Ambrose
    Ethnopharmacological relevance—Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Materials and methods—Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. Results—The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Conclusion—This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens . The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model.
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    Community Education Challenges in Young Adults of South Western Uganda
    (Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2015-02) Kasozi, Keneth Iceland; Echoru, Isaac; Mbiydzenyuy, Elvis Ngala; Kimwise, Aaron; Nansunga, Miriam; Semuyaba, Ibrahim; Kalange, Muhamudu; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Muggaga, Kintu; Emorut, Simon Peter
    The aim of this study was to identify the major challenges to community education and any health problem in Bushenyi district of South Western Uganda. Data collection was done through questionnaire and participants were randomly selected. This was a cross-sectional study carried out for a period of three months in 2012. A questionnaire was used to collect data and using onsite observations the responses were validated. A total of 260 participants from 65 homesteads were included in the study from 52 households. 144 were females and 116 males, of which 52.4% of the children were female and the rest male. The mean ± SEM age of females and males was 36 ± 8.6 and 29 ± 8.6 years respectively. In all the homesteads, 71% were headed by an adult male and only 29% were found to be headed by an adult female while none was headed by children. Inferential analysis showed (P = 0.02) that there are more females than male in the homesteads. Majority of the homesteads are being taken care of by women instead of men probably as a result of the high mortalities due to HIV/AIDS in the past decade and above all the movement of most men to urban centers in search of better sources of employment to support their families. Among school going age participant’s i.e. children and adolescents, only 59.6% were found to be attending school. There was no statistical significance (P = 0.16) between school attendance and age. Family responsibilities such as cooking for younger siblings by female participants, obligations on open market days are thought to be secondary limiting factors for community development and livelihood among young persons; thus a follow up study would be conducted to assess their associations in this community as this would raise major child abuse concerns which would need to be reported to the legal authorities for follow up.
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    Anticonvulsant and toxicity effects of ethanolic extract of Thevetia Peruviana (Pers.) leaves
    (Premier Publishers, 2016) Izo, Ninsiima Herbert; Kirimuhuzya, Claude; Okello, Samuel
    Epilepsy is a neurologic condition due to disordered firing of brain neurons characterised by seizures. Most currently available antiepileptic drugs are synthetic and do not offer a complete cure yet with devastating side effects. Studies have shown that extracts from certain plants can produce anticonvulsant effects and may, therefore be useful against epileptic seizures. To investigate anticonvulsant effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Thevetia peruviana on chemically induced seizures in Wister rats. Leaves of T. peruviana were pulverised and extracted with ethanol. Graded doses of the ethanolic extract were used to test for the anticonvulsant effect of the extract using pentylenetetrazole model of seizures in rats. Acute toxicity testing and phytochemical analysis were done using Lorke’s method. Graded doses of T. peruviana leaf extract significantly delayed onset of seizures. They protected animals from death due to pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures. There was no death up to 3000mg/kg. The extract was found to be rich in essential oils, flavonoids, alkaloid, phenols, proteins and resins. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of T. peruviana contains compounds with anticonvulsant effects since it protected the animals from death and delayed the onset of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole and that is relatively safe.