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|Title:||Grazing effects on the riparian vegetation and human community along river Benue, Adamawa State, Nigeria|
|Authors:||Kwabe, Madube Tumba|
|Publisher:||Kampala International University|
|Abstract:||This study purposely of investigated the grazing effects on riparian vegetation and human communities along river Benue, Adamawa states. The objectives were; i) to determine grazing effects on the plant community; ii) to determine the socio economic effects of grazing along river Benue on human community; and iii) to identify effective management strategies for conservation and sustainability of riparian area along river Benue. The study used cross-sectional and observational survey design. The target population was 550 participants who included: sixty-five (65) River Basin Development Authority, fifty-five (55) State Environment Management Agency, twelve (12) Non-Governmental Organizations, thirty-six (36) Community Base Organizations and four hundred and thirty (430) local community members. Sample size of 232 was determined using Sloven‘s formula. The data instruments included questionnaires, interview and observation guides. The questionnaires response rate of the study was 96 percent of the contacted respondents. Data was analyzed using inferential techniques, frequency and percentage distribution. Tables and graphs were used to present the data. Study revealed that grazing has significant effect on the riparian plant species community with decrease in species growth, decrease in palatable native species diversity, decrease in plant productivity of the riparian, decrease in species composition, increase in exotic species diversity, increase in native unpalatable plant species. furthermore, the study found that there was increase in plant extinction, increase in plant diebark and decrease in the vigor and resilience status of plant species along river Benue. Again the study found out that there was variation in plant species density between the grazed and ungrazed sites and also, a slight difference on the species attributes amidst the upper and lower riparian. The study indicated a very strong positive socio-economic effect of grazing along river Benue. including insecurity, destruction of water sources, poor quality of life (poor health quality), increase in communicable diseases e.g. Epidemic Cholera, hepatitis and typhoid, poor sanitation, limited access to safe and quality water. Furthermore, the study revealed the destruction of habitat and decrease in fish productivity decrease in wild foods (fruits/vegetable e.g. cashew nuts, hackberries) and medicinal plants e.g. combretum nigrican and lamiaceae; decrease in the navigability level of riparian water; destruction or upsetting of riparian educational potential (53 percent). The study revealed that the most effective management strategies for this riparian area included but limited to: fencing strategy, alternative watering point strategy, and using shade and shelter grazing strategy. Considering the fact that degraded riparian environments demand innovative and pragmatic approaches to restoration and significant of the effects of grazing in riparian area along river Benue, and the need for sustainable vegetation cover and economic activities, the study recommends that the Government of Adamawa State together with Federal Government should strengthens grazing related policies promoting awareness of the negative effects of traditional grazing and ensuring the adoption of best grazing management practices such as tree planting and establishing Grass reserves, specific watering points e.g. ground tanks within pastures, planting palatable forage species e.g. on depleted upland areas, programing prescribed burning as a vegetation treatment improvement, system improving Stockmanship through traing , engineering interventions for invasive species e.g. Cenhrus cilliaris. Herd management and animal husbandry practices of cows Sheep and goats, Supplementation of feeds Culling and fencing techniques.|
|Description:||A dissertation submitted to the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the award of the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Environmental Management Science of Kampala International University|
|Appears in Collections:||Environmental Management|
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