Ethnic conflicts and governance in Jonglei State, South Sudan

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Kampala International University
This study was set to establish the relationship between Ethnic conflict and Governance in Jonglei State, and South Sudan. It was guided by the following specific objectives, that included determining the (i) profile of respondents,(i) To establish the state of Ethnic conflict, (ii) to examine the extent of governance and (iii) To establish whether there is a relationship between Ethnic Conflict and governance in Jonglei, South Sudan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design .it used questionnaires, face to face interviews. The target population was 220 from which a sample size of 140 was derived. Findings revealed that respondents between 25-35 year were32.1%, Female respondents dominated the study (64.3%); married were(53.6%) other marital status category; Secondary Certificate holders dominated the study50% and on occupation others dominated the entire sample size with 54.2%. The findings on Ethnic conflict revealed that eight items were measured and rated as follows; cattle grazing and raids (Average mean=2.43, std.99116) Environmental conflicts (Average mean=2.50, std 1.02221), ethnic security dilemma (Average mean=2.64, std. 1.08997) Disarmament and grab of power (Average mean=2.41 std. .99248), state political capacity (Average mean=2.18 std. 1.03375) religious issues (Average mean= 2.25 std. .85146) and abduction (Average mean=2.49 std .63617) with an overall mean of 2.41).The findings on Governance revealed that seven items were measured and rated as follows; Public participation and Democracy (Average mean=3.06, std .74603) Legislative branch (Average mean=2.83, std .59523), Executive and rule of Law (Average mean=2.92 std. .70057) Traditional & customary arrangement (Average mean=2.78 std. .68791), Transparency and accountability (Average mean=2.80 std. .72664) Human Security (Average mean= 2.81 std. .59522) with an overall mean of 2.87). Regarding ethnic conflict, it was recommended that; Equitable sharing of resources, Strengthening local administration, Empowerment of traditional leadership, Government to treat all communities equally, Governor visit all communities regularly, Provision of judges and public prosecutors; construction of courts in the counties, Upgrading of unqualified civil servants through capacity-building, compensation of salaries to chiefs. While issues of inclusive governance and equity are important drivers of conflict, these statements highlight complex and in some cases long-standing governance-related issues which largely went beyond the mandate of the peace conference. Political accommodation approach tackles governance issues directly. Regarding governance it was recommended that; if power sharing is to be done to the satisfaction of all different ethnic, religious, caste, tribal and linguistic identities, millions of people would have to be accommodated in various state structures. Hence, power sharing does not seem to offer any viable solution at all. Also inculcate regional autonomy and federation into the state system to enable local and regional authorities with a degree of autonomous power and authority. Allow external intervention to find a solution to their internal conflicts like those of the Nuer tribes, and Dinka. External interventions have two primary effects. Intervention can alter the internal balance of ethnic power and lead groups to moderate their demands. Provide guarantees for new ethnic contracts between the warring parties, at least during an interim period. Demobilized persons should be equipped with skills agriculture, carpentry, blacksmith and modern ways of livestock farming which will improve their livelihoods; the government should also compensate the families that have been affected by cattle raids and use all forces to recover the children and women who had been abducted. Further recommends awareness to the local population on the dangers of illegal arms in the area and possession of illegal fire arms. The peaceful disarmament to the local population that will help in restoration and peaceful co-existence of peace in the area is also very important. In conclusion, the preservation of ethnic peace is dependent upon the type and effectiveness of the available conflict management mechanisms and also the respective government's policy choices and decisions. Secondly, the use of constitutional conflict management tools has the potential to create lasting peace. This was more evident in Jonglei, where the government created the foundation for a thriving civil society, accountability and government transparency. The relationship that exist between Ethnic conflict and extents of good governance in Jonglei State is significantly correlated, (sig.>0.05). This means that Ethnic conflicts influences good governance in Jonglei State, South Sudan and the failure to resolve Ethnic conflicts well, the more poor governance, in relations to their posttraumatic condition, and other necessities as well as cease/failure to operate in the foreseeable future. The ethnic conflict theory of Lake and Rothschild, (1996) was proved right. it states that, when ethnic groups come to fear for their future (physical) security, they prepare for conflict, thus initiating a security dilemma. Several things can cause such a fear to develop, such as a decline in cultural security or past experience with conflict. The factor that Lake and Rothchild dwell on the most is rising anarchy, essentially a Hobbesian argument: as the Leviathan (the state) declines (becomes unable to prevent conflict), ethnic groups fear that their physical security may be at risk
A thesis presented to the College of Higher Degrees and Research of Kampala International University, Uganda in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Master’s Degree in Public Administration
South Sudan, Jonglei