Prevalence of malaria among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at Atutur Hospital Kumi District Uganda

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Kampala International University, School of Allied Health Sciences
This chapter deals with background of the study, global malaria burden, burden of malaria in pregnancy in Africa, burden of malaria in pregnancy in Uganda, problem statement, study objectives, research questions, study justification, conceptual frame work and scope of the study. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Globally, Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. More than 40% of the world population lives in malarias areas(World Health Organisation., 2010). According to the report, there were 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide in 2015 (range 148–304 million). The WHO African Region accounted for most global cases of malaria (90%), followed by the South-East Asia Region (7%) and the Eastern Mediterranean Region (2%) (WHO, 2016a). In 2015, there were an estimated 429 000 malaria deaths (range 235 000–639 000) worldwide (WHO, 2016a). Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health Problem in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world (WHO, 2010). The burden of malaria infection during pregnancy is Caused mainly by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), the most common malaria species in Africa (World Health Organisation., 2010). P. falciparum infection in pregnancy leads to parasite sequestration in the maternal placental vascular space, with consequent maternal anemia and infant low birth weight (LBW) due to both prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Malaria control still remains a challenge in Africa where 45 countries, including Nigeria, are endemic for malaria, and about 588 million people are at risk (World health organization, 2013). The protection of pregnant women living in malaria-endemic countries has been of particular interest to many National Malaria Control Programme because of their reduced immunity. Most cases of malaria in pregnancy in areas of stable malaria transmission are asymptomatic (Wellington, 2009). To assess the magnitude of the burden of malaria in pregnancy and its contribution to infant mortality, we evaluated data from published and unpublished studies during the last 15 years (1990–2005) and focus on sub-Saharan Africa, where data are most available. Because of the multiple pathways for the chain of events between maternal malaria infection and infant mortality, we specifically sought studies that evaluate malaria, anemia, and HIV infection and their contribution to low birth weight and potentially to infant mortality. There is a paucity of population-based data on malaria in pregnancy in settings of low malaria endemicity. Between 2010 and 2015, malaria incidence rates (new malaria cases) fell by 21% globally and in the African Region. During this same period, malaria mortality rates fell by an estimated 29% globally and by 31% in the African Region (WHO, 2016a).
A research report submitted to the School Of Allied Health Sciences in partial fulfillment for the award of a Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Community Health at Kampala International University Western Campus
Malaria, Pregnant mothers, Antenatal care, Atutur Hospital, Kumi District, Uganda