Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Community Health(DCM)

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 109
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    Anemia as a Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in HIV Infection
    (Journal of Biological Sciences, 2023) Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu; Getrude Uzoma Obeagu; Esther Ugo Alum; Okechukwu Paul-Chima Ugwu
    Anemia, a prevalent hematologic manifestation in individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, has garnered considerable attention as a prognostic indicator for disease progression and adverse clinical outcomes. This abstract presents a comprehensive review elucidating the intricate relationship between anemia and the progression of HIV infection, incorporating epidemiological trends, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and prognostic significance. Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), anemia remains a frequent complication in HIV infected individuals, posing substantial challenges to patient management. This paper aims to provide a nuanced understanding of anemia's role as a prognostic marker, surpassing its conventional characterization as a hematologic abnormality in the context of HIV infection. Anemia's role as a predictive marker for adverse clinical outcomes in HIV patients is explored, encompassing increased mortality rates, heightened risk of opportunistic infections, accelerated disease progression, and compromised quality of life. The review delves into its prognostic significance, shaping therapeutic decisions and prognostic assessments. This paper encapsulates the criticality of anemia as a prognostic marker for disease progression in HIV infection. Understanding its epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and prognostic significance is pivotal for informed clinical decision-making, prognostic assessments, and optimizing care paradigms in HIV management.
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    The level of art adherence among HIV and aids patients attending Kilembe mines hospital art-clinic, Kasese district
    (Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences, 2017-07) Latifa, Nankya
    Background: Introduction and adopted use of ART has shown reduction in HIV related mortality and morbidity in people with HIV/AIDS. However high levels of ART adherence (>95%) is required to achieve effective suppression of viral load among patients. Objective: The study was aimed at determining the level of ART adherence and the associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients attending Kilembe mines hospital in Kasese District. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to obtain qualitative data using a structured questionnaire administered to participants. Systematic random sampling was used to obtain 109 study participants attending Kilembe Mines Hospital. The data analyzed was presented using frequency tables. Results: The results indicated that the adherence to ART by patients at the Kilembe Hospital ART Clinic was 70%. This level of adherence was associated with several factors including stigmatization, distance to health facility, gender discrimination and side effects arising from ART. Conclusion: The observed level of ART adherence was 70% associated with patient, treatment and health system factors. Continuous community health education and campaigns against stigma and gender discrimination will improve ART adherence among HIV patients.
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    Factors affecting utilization of antenatal services among pregnant women aged 15-49 in Gombe sub-county, Butambala District Gombe hospital
    (Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences, 2017-07) Disan, Munyaga
    This study aims at determinants affecting utilization of ANC services among pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Gombe sub county Butambala district in Gombe hospital. Usually services offered at the ANC clinic may include screening of infections, prevention of maternal child transmission of aids, screening of fetal anomalies, and prevention diseases to mother during pregnancy. This study was a hospital based across sectional and prospective study that was used in determining the factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care services. The researcher employed a simple random sampling method to obtain data for the research and data was analyzed manually, using Microsoft excel, calculator and by use of percentage for description and presented in form of tables and pie charts. Independent variables for this study include: age, marital status, level of education, type of place of residence and household wealth index. Results show that while age and marital status are consistently strong predictors in the utilization of all the ANC services considered in this study, other determinants generally vary in magnitude and level of significance by the type of ANC service- timing and number of antenatal visits. Age and marital status are significant in determining utilization of ANC services. Wealth and type of place of residence are more significant in determining the timing of antenatal visit than in determining the total number of antenatal visits. Similarly, the highest level of education is more significant in determining the total number of visits than in timing of antenatal visits.
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    Assessment of the knowledge and practice of infection control among health workers at St. Daniel's Comboni Hospital
    (Kampala International University, School of Health Sciences- Western Campus, 2017-07) Mumbere, Samuel
    Background Compliance on the part of healthcare workers with standard precautions has been recognized as being an efficient means to prevent and control healthcare-associated infections. Such measures not only protect the patient, but also the HCWs and environment. Objective To assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards infection control measures among Heath workers at Comboni hospital Methods The study was conducted at Comboni Hospital, Southwest Uganda .Cross-sectional study design was employed. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 36 health workers that were available at the time of the study. Data was analyzed using Microsoft excel progran:uned. Results Health workers were fairly knowledgeable about infection prevention but ac!Ual practices "'ere far from acceptable. Conclusions/Recommendations Majority of health care workers' knowledge, attitude and practice toward standard precaution were not sufficient, favorable and safe enough to the expected standard. Strengthening and integrating universal precaution with routine serv ices through provision of training and introducing health care workers infection prevention standard of practice. protoco l. ru les. and regulation are recommended.
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    Sanitation and hygiene related diseases among children below ten years attending Bumanya Health Center IV, Kaliro District, Eastern Uganda
    (Kampala International University; School of Health Sciences, 2017-07) Kiige, Timothy
    preventable diseases associated to sanitation and hygiene as compared to their counter parts the adults.it was under speculations that the care takers, health workers and the government share the blame. The study was carried out among the patients At Bumanya Health Centre IV while targeting the District since it's the main health facility in Kaliro District at referral level and therefore serving the patients for the five Sub Counties of Namwiwa, Nawaikoke, Gadumire, Namugongo and Bumanya which make up Kaliro District hence able to provide enough statistical information to assess the whole District. The respondents were randomly selected irrespective of their Sub Counties. The study was undertaken to find out the sanitation and hygiene related diseases, their predisposing factors and control measures among the patients below ten years of age attending the health facility. The research question was based on the named factors and literature review followed the same pattern. Information collection was through interview schedules and questionnaires. The collected data was compiled and analysed leading to the findings that diarrhea and intestinal nematodes infections are the most common diseases in the category, behavior characters arc the most predisposing factors and preventions being the best control measures. It was then recommended that most focused should be put on diarrheal disease and that the care takers should be advised and taught to modify the house hold behavioral characters as well as prevention measures both by the community and the government rather than re lying on curatives which are at a large extent government aided and need time to be implemented and budgeted for.