Inorganic pollutants in drinking water of south Western Uganda: implications on water safety and cancer risks for Ugandans

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Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences
Background: There is a scarcity of information on the quality of safe drinking water for the attainment of Goal 6 of the SDGs. The study aimed to determine concentrations of inorganic compounds, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and identify safe drinking water source points in south westem Uganda. Methods: This was an observational study in which 40 drinking water samples were collected from geo-referenced boreholes, springs, open wells, bottled and taps within Bushenyi district of south westem Uganda. Water samples were analyzed for Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Water safety measures (ED! HI, and ILCR) were established for each water source and compared with local and international water pennissible standards for each analytic. A spatial map was drawn using q GIS® and analysis of quantitative data was done using MS Excel20 13 at 95% significance. Results: Fe was the primary water pollutant in the order of open well> borehole> tap> spring> bottled water. This was followed by Zn levels in the order of tap > bottled > spring > borehole > open well. All compounds were safe by international standards except Pb showing a need to install Pb filters in drinking water in Uganda. The ED I was similar for water consumed from sp1ing, bottled and tap sources for Fe and Znlevels and no differences were found in children and adults (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the HI showed an absence of non-carcinogenic risk associated although the ILCR was higher in adults than children (P < 0.05) due to the very high Zn concentrations. Conclusion: Borehole water was the most recommended water source showing a need for increased water filtration in Uganda. KEYWORDS: 'Heavy metals,' 'ecotoxicology,' 'cancer in Africa,' 'water quality,' 'Pb toxicity,' 'Zn toxicity.'
A final dissertation submitted to the school of pharmacy as partial fulfillment for the requirement of a ward of a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy Of Kampala international university Western campus Uganda
Pharmacy, Inorganic pollutants, Drinking water, South Western Uganda, Water safety, Cancer risks