Bachelor of Pharmacy

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 51
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    Antioxidant activity of the Ethanolic extracts of leaves of Amaranth spp and cucurbita spp in drosophila melanogaster
    (Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences, 2018-12) Johnmark, Ndinawe
    Background: Several plants show potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, and their role in preventing oxidative stress-induced diseases such as Diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and many others. Objective: In this study, the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts of leaves of Amaranth spp and Cucurbita spp and their ability to protect against oxidative stress in Drosophila mel ana gaster w1 1 18wild type flies was determined. Materials and Methods: Flies cultured on food supplemented with 0.05 and O.lmg/ml of Amaranth spp and Cucurbita spp leaf extracts were assayed for longevity, climbing activity, catalase activity, and oxidative stress resistance according to the established protocols. Scavenging activity of extracts on 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and reducing power activity were equally evaluated. Results: There were significant effects of the extracts on DPPH free radical scavenging activity, catalase activity, climbing activity, longevity and oxidative stress resistance. Cucurbita extract showed no significant difference in climbing activity and catalase activity assay compared to the control. Conclusion: This study shows that the ethanol extracts of leaves of Amaranth spp and Cucurbita spp exhibit varying degrees of protection against free radical induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.
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    A study of the acute toxicity, phytochemical and analgesic properties of the aqueous root extract of flueggea virosa (family: euphorbiaceae)
    (Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences, 2010-04) Kezia, Matuki Eunice
    Introduction/Objectives: Fluegge a virosa grows wild in tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, tropical Asia, Japan, Australia and Polynesia, and it can also be domesticated. The different parts of the plant have many folkloric usage for diverse ailments including pain, fever, malaria, sexual dysfunction, diabetes, epilepsy, antiarrhythmic, HIV -related illness among many others. The root is claimed to be the most potent part of the plant. In view of the claimed therapeutic potentials, investigation of the aqueous extract of the root was carried out to ascertain its acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and analgesic activity. Methodology: The plant material was extracted using decoction method since this is how it is used locally. Acute toxicity tests were conducted in rats using modified Lorke' s method to determine the safety of the extract. Phytochemical screening was conducted using methods outlined in Trease and Evans to determine the components of the extracts. Analgesic studies were carried out using thermal induced pain (tailflick method) and chemical induced pain (formalin) in rats by giving extracts orally at 100, 200 and 400mglkg of body weight. Results: Acute toxicity tests did not record any death among the different groups of rats used. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. Analgesic studies (thermal induced pain-tailflick method) showed some activity, which tested insignificant to ANOVA test and chemical induced pain (formalin) showed good activity and tested significant to ANOVA test. Conclusion: The aqueous root extract of Flueggea virosa has many useful phytochemical constituents. Acute toxicity tests indicated that the extract could be generally regarded as safe. The extract has a dose dependent analgesic effect which is perhaps not centrally mediated. Thus the results provide support for the use of the plant in relieving pain and fever among the natives in rural areas. Keywords: Flueggea virosa; Phytochemicals; Pain; Analgesic; Toxicity.
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    Evaluation of the effects of lumefantrine component of coartem on electrical conductivity of the heart in patients taking coartem in management of uncomplicated malaria in KIU-th Bushenyi district
    (Kampala international international: School of Health Sciences, 2015-02) Phiona, Babirye
    Background: Approximately 2.37 billion people Jive in areas at risk for transmission Of pfalciparum malaria, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa (Hay, et al., 2009). Combination Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem, Riamet, and Falcynate-LF) is a fixed dose Artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT) indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium Jalciparum malaria. It is an effective and well tolerated treatment providing high cure rates even in areas with multi-drug resistance. Cardiac effect on electrical conductivity in terms of QTc prolongation and arrhythmias remains a matter of worry (Lefevre, et al., 2001). Aim: Several unrelated drugs have pro-arrhythmic activity associated with an ability to prolong the QTinterval of the Electrocardiogram just as proved for Halofantrine (Nosten, et al., 1993). Lumefantrine has some chemical similarities to Halofantrin, (Jatakiya,et al.,2014),an antimalarial known for QTc prolongation and due to their structural similarities, also the cardiac effect on electrical conductivity of the heart by Lumefantrine remains a matter of debate in therapeutics. This research aimed at evaluating the effects of Lumefantrine component of coartem on electrical conductivity of the heart in patients taking coartem in management of malaria in KIU-TH Bushenyi District. Method: The research was a quantitative prospective random study. Safety assessment was done by monitoring vital signs, blood pressure, Heart rate and monitoring of Electrical conductivity. Electrocardiograms were recorded before dosing and after the fifth dose. The QT interval and Heart rate were used to calculate QTc interval using Bazett's formula QTc=QT/RR112.The QTc interval as the response variable was compared between treatments. Results; In the baseline electrocardiograms the QTc intervals were normal There was no clinically relevant differences in the QTc intervals observed after sequential administration Of Artemether/Lumefantrine(Coartem). No significant observation suggestive of cardiotoxicity was noted in the study. Conclusion; The alternative hypothesis stating that Artemether /Lumefantrine possesses significant effect on electrical conductivity of the heart has not been supported by the results obtained in this study. Artemether/Lumefantrine can be used as a therapeutic option with likely better
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    Comparative physicochemical, phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of Ocimum Gratissimum and Ocimum Suave Species in Western Uganda
    (Kampala International University; School of Health Sciences, 2013-03) Naluwuge, Annet
    Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum suave belong to the family lamiaceae. Folkore medicine claims their use in many conditions. Leaves of 0 gratissimum and 0 suave were extracted in aqueous methanol by maceration, extract was filtered and evaporated using the rotary evaporator and dried to a constant weight in an oven. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the active constituents and Quantification tests were carried out to obtain the amount of phytochmicals in each extract. Standard procedures were used to determine the physicochemical properties of the two leaves. Acute toxicity studies were evaluated on laboratory rats, aiming at ascertaining the acute toxicity profile of the two leaves extract. This research is expected to contribute to the knowledge of acute toxicity of 0 gratissimum and 0 suave and their physicochemical and phytochemical composition.
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    Assessment of health workers' adherence to standard treatment guidelines in management of typhoid fever at Kampala International University Teaching Hospital
    (Kampala International University; School of Health Sciences, 2018-11) Katusiime, Judith
    Typhoid fever remains a global health problem and it is difficult to estimate the real burden of typhoid fever in the world because the clinical picture is confused with many other febrile infections. Thus this study was aimed assessing health workers' adherence to standard treatment guidelines in the management of typhoid fever in KlU-TH. A retrospective study design was used which was quantitative in nature involving obtaining data from patient files. The study population were patients with typhoid fever attending at KIU-TH and a sample size 60 patients' files was used. Data was collected with help of the data sheet and entered into SPSS version 25, analyzed and presented in form of tables, graphs and pie-charts. The most commonly used medicine to treat typhoid fever was Ciprofloxacin tabs used in 34(56.7%) of the cases in files and the mostly used test for typhoid fever was WAT used in 31(51.7%) files used in this study and 29(48.3%) file cases RDT was used to test for typhoid fever. All cases that used Azithromycin tabs the prescribed dose was 500mg of which 2 cases their dose duration was 3 days and 3 used the dose duration of 5 days. Similarly all the cases where Ciprofloxacin tabs 500mg was the dose, where 26 cases used 10 days as the dose duration and 7 used 14 days as the dose duration. Whereas for Amoxicillin capsules 11 case files used a dose of 500mg and 5 used a dose lg, 6 cases used a dose duration of 5 days, 8 used a dose duration of 10 days and lastly 2 used a dose duration of 14 days. 3 cases that used Cefixine capsules used 1 g as their dose and 2 used 400mg as their dose, 4 used dose duration of 5 days and only 1 used a dose duration of 7 days. In conclusion, all medicines used by health workers that is Ciprofloxacin tablets, Amoxicillin capsules, Azithromycin tablets and Cefixine were recommended by WHO guidelines and UCG. The mostly used medicines was Ciprofloxacin tabs and Ciprofloxacin tablets was properly prescribed by mainly following UCG. Though tests used in diagnosis of typhoid fever that is WAT and RDT were neither recommended by WHO guidelines nor UCG. Regarding doses, all Azithromycin tabs doses were correctly prescribed though 80% of the dose duration's were not correct, Cefixine capsule was properly prescribed though 80% of duration's were wrong, Amoxicillin capsules doses was properly prescribed using UCG though 43.8% dose duration's were wrong according UCG.