Unemployment and Crime among the Youth in Seeta Central Division Mukono District.

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Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences
The age pattern of crime is close to universal. In virtually all countries, criminal activity rise with age, peak in the late teens, then fall (e.g. Hirschi and Gottfredson 1983). For example, while the conviction rate among Swedish men aged 19 to 24 in the year 2005 amounted to 4.2 percent the corresponding figure for men aged 29 to 34 was nearly half as large. A popular explanation for the age distribution of crime is that youths are more exposed to unemployment (e.g. Freeman 1996; Grogger 1998). Economists have argued that the income loss generated by unemployment lowers the opportunity cost of engaging in crime (cf. Becker 1968; Ebrlich 1973). Others have hypothesized that joblessness triggers frustration and anger, which in turn may lead to violent behavior (e.g. Agnew 1992). It has also been suggested that unemployment provides individuals with more time and opportunities to commit crime (Felson 1998). Understanding the link between youth unemployment and crime is not only important to help explain the age distribution of crime but is also a key issue for public policy since any relationship would indicate that the social benefits of investments in labor market programs may exceed those usually claimed. 1 ~he area of juvenile crime measurement is equally highly problematic, and is as much a mine leld as ‘measuring’ juvenile unemployment. As Arie Freiberg suggests it is a problem that goes vith any consideration of the ‘crime rate’ - ‘...the problem is we don’t really know what the true tate of criminality is’ (Freiberg 1991: 2). The problems of ‘measuring’ the extent or ‘rate’ of rime are notorious and are the cause of many complaints by both academics and officials about he paucity of credible data and the need for more resources and better funded agencies to rectify he problem. As Wundersitz points out: ‘there is no national uniform data collection system’ Wundersitz 1993: 19). 3Iobally, four out of every ten unemployed persons are young women or young men. In some ountries, youth unemployment is three times higher than adult unemployment (Vremudia, ~0l2). Many youths have become pessimistic, feeling powerless to change their situation Somavia, 2012). ILO 2011 report shows that one in two young persons was actively ~articipating in the labour market. However, unemployment is only one dimension of the youth mployment problem. Apart from high levels of unemployment, there is also a decline in the [Uality of employment available to youth. Many youth end up in situations informal employment nd poor working conditions. Thus the challenge is not just to create employment but to create [ecent work (Alabi and Alanana, 2012; ILO, 2012).
A Research Report Submitted To the College Of Humanities And Social Sciences, Department Of Peace and Conflict Resolution In Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Bachelor’s Degree In Development Studies of Kampala International University.
Unemployment, Crime among the Youth, Seeta Central Division ,Mukono District