Assessment of antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas Aeru'ginosa, Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates from Barn Swallow Droppings in Ishaka Town, Bushenyi District, Uganda.

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Kampala International University, School of Health Sciences.
Introduction: It has been reported that the main factors behind the emergence of drug resistance is the use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs during the past few decades, but there is also the aspect of epidemic spread of drug-resistant bacteria as a factor. This has caused a major concern with serious implications in human and animal health. It's noted that as much as man's action contribute to the development of antimicrobial drug resistance, it is also seen with domestic animals, wild life and wild birds. Wild birds and other migratory species have been linked to the spread of pathogens. Materials and Methods: The study design was experimental where samples from Barn Swallow droppings were collected and taken to the microbiology laboratory for analysis. The samples were inoculated in an enriched broth media for 24 hours and sub-cultured on MacConkey agar Dcoxycholate citrate agar. Cultural characteristics, morphology (Gram reaction) and identification (biochemical test) was done to determine the identity of the bacterial isolates. Results: The study findings showed that bacteria species isolated from the 51 Barn Swallow droppings of were Klebsiella species 33(64.7%), Salmonella species 11(21.5%), Pseudomonas species 0%, others 3(5.9%) and no growth isolated from 4(7.8%) of the samples. The susceptibility test of showed that Klebsiella isolates were sensitive to Imipenem (93.9%) streptomycin (75.8%), Perfloxacin (42%), Nalidixic acid (12.1 %) and Amikacin (9%) respectively while Salmonella isolates were sensitive to Imipenem (81.8%), Streptomycin (36.4%). Nalidixic acid (36.4%) and Perfloxacin (18.2%) respectively. Klebsiella spp isolates were found to be 100% resistant to Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin, Oxacillin, Augmentin and (90.9%) to Chloramphenicol while (87 .9%) to Nalidixic acid, Ciprof1oxacin and 84.8% to Amikacin. Salmonella species were also found to be 100% resistant to Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Piperacillin, Oxacillin, Augmentin and Amikacin; (81.8%) Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, while (63%) Nalidixic acid and Perfloxacin. Conclusion: This study found that Barn Swallow droppings contained bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Klebsiella sp.) that may be a risk to human infection and are found to be resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics. The recurrence of human infection with Salmonella species may as a result of frequent contact with the pathogen which contaminates the environment and water as a result of the Barn Swallow droppings.
A research report submitted to the School of Pharmacy in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor of Pharmacy Degree of Kampala International University.
Medicine, Antibiotic, Bushenyi District, Uganda