Neuroprotective mechanisms of garlic (allium sativum) in modulation of hippocampus function in model of type ii Diabetic Wistar Rats

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Kampala International University.College of Health Science
Hippocampus functions have been reported to be affected by diabetes mellitus. Studies suggest that within diabetic rats, garlic (A.sativum) improves different forms of memory that depend on the hippocampus. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of garlic (A.sativum) extract possibly mediated by the Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ATPase and glutamine synthetase (GS) in the hippocampus of type II diabetic Wistar rats has not been fully demonstrated. Therefore, the present study determined the effect of ethanol extract of ga;rlic (A.sativum) on object location memory (OLM) and on hippocampus Na+/K+ATPase, Ca2 + ATPase and GS activities. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, six rats each were used. Normal control rats in group A received 1ml of normal saline, normal rats in group B received 1 000mg/kg of garlic extract, diabetic control rats in group C received 1 ml of normal saline, diabetic rats in group D received 1 000mg/kg of garlic extract and diabetic rats in group E received 50mg/kg of metformin. All treatments were administered orally for 21 days. Induction of hyperglycemia was achieved by a single intraperitoneal injection of 60mg/kg STZ followed by 120mg/kg nicotinarnide while extraction of garlic (A.sativum) was done by cold maceration method. OLM was tested befor) induction of diabetes mellitus type II and at the end ?f the experiment in all the groups. After thf test, the rats were sacrificed, the brain removed, the hippocampi were carefully excised and thef homogenized. Homogenate was analyzed forNa+/K+ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase and GS activities. Results obtained showed that, there was improvement in OLM. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05) in hippocampus Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2 + ATPase and GS activities. In conclusion, it can be suggested that, the neuroprotective mechanisms of garlic (A.sativum) in modulating hippocampus function could be mediated through increasing the activities of hippocampus Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2 + ATPase and glutamine synthetase.
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of master of Science In Physiology of Kampala International University
Neuroprotective, Mechanisms, Garlic, Allium Sativum