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    Factors associated with diarrhea among children under five years in Kalungu Sub county Kalungu District
    (Kampala International University.College of Health Science, 2017-07) Ronald, Kiwalabye
    INTRODUCTION: In Uganda Diarrhea contributes 14% to the Under-5 mortality. STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors predisposing children below 5 years of age in Kalungu district, Kalungu Sub County. METHOD: This study was cross sectional in nature. A Simple random sampling method was used for qualitative data collection. Data was collected by conducting in-depth interview with the mothers available at the homes during the time of data collection and was. Data was presented using tables and be analyzed electronically using Statistical Product for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17 In SPSS and excel 2010. RESULTS: Considering demographic data specifically age 20(26%) were between 2-11 months, 21(27%) were between 1-2 years 35(46%) were between 3-5 years. Considering the hygiene of children, 10(13.3%) cases were identified in children who could wash their hands after using the toilet, 36(47.3%) cases were identified in children who could not wash their hands after using the toilet. Considering ownership of the toilet facility, 31(40.7%) cases were identified in children who privately owned toilet facilities and 45(59.3%) cases were identified in children whose homes shared the toilet facility with other people Concerning the mode of water treatment, 20(26.4%) cases were identified in children whose families treated water by boiling, 4(5.2%) cases were identified in children whose families treated their water by chlorination, and 52(68.4%) cases were identified in children whose families dint treat water in anyway. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea was more in children above 3 years because they are more exposed to the environment and germs, children with, children with poor hygienic practices were found to have experienced dianhea more than those with un hygienic practices, children living in homes with shared toilet facilities because sharing toilets making them unhygienic thus. Homes that dint treat water had more risk of developing diarrhea because diarrheal germs live in un boiled water. RECOMMENDATION: Health education about the causes of diarrhea and preventive measures should be intensified by the government. More health educators should be trained to increase the man power and to cover a wider area.
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    Factors associated with under nutrition in children under five years in Bangaladesh Parish, Namasale Sub-County, Amolatar District
    (Kampala International University.College of Health Science, 2017-07) Sharon, Awino
    Introduction In Uganda, under nutrition remains a serious health and welfare problem affecting the under-five children to whom it contributes significantly to mortality and morbidity. General objective To assess factors associated with under nutrition in children under- five years in Bangaladesh parish, Namasale sub-county, Amolatar district. Methodology The study was a descriptive cross sectional study to determine the factors associated with under nutrition in children less than five years of age in Bangaladesh parish, Amolatar District among 130 respondents who answered a structural questionnaire. Data was collected, analyzed and presented in tables and descriptive words. Study results The study revealed that 71 % of the respondents were within the age group of 15-34 years, with one mother as young as < 15 years, the standard of education of mothers in the study area was found to be very low; none had attained tertiary level of education. Majority, 59% serve their children communally, 4% wean at 6 months and 75% of mothers don't take their children to a well fare clinic, 13%ofthe respondents did not have latrines and finally most of the respondents, 66% get water from lakes and 89% do not use any method of water purification. Conclusion In conclusion, the study showed that early marriage, low education level, communal serving of children, early weaning, poor attendance of the child welfare clinic, recent infections, lack of water purification practice, lack of latrines, poor child care are the factors associated with under nutrition in children under 5years in Bangaladesh parish, Amolatar district. Recommendation I therefore recommend that health education should be emphasized on the promotion of girl child education, discouraging early marriages, communal serving of children and early weaning, prompt treatment of infections, encouraging taking children to welfare clinic, construction of pit latrines, purification of water and improving the quality of services provided.
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    Drugs use practices in northern Uganda hospitals: a case study of Gulu Regional Referral Hospital
    (Kampala International University.College of Health Science, 2012-09) Christine, Ojul Lakop
    Background: Irrational use of medicines is a maJor problem worldwide. Studies conducted in several countries, including Uganda, indicate that more than 50% of all medicines used globally are used irrationally. Irrational use of medicines results in increased risk of adverse reactions, wastage of the scarce resources, and development of preventable resistance of organisms to commonly used antibiotics. To be able design appropriate interventions, there is need to carry out drug use studies and this was one of such studies but which targeted Gulu Regional Referral Hospital in Northern Uganda. Objective: To determine and document drug use practices in Gulu Regional Referral Hospital. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional case study involving eight hundreds (800) prescriptions, 44 staff respondents and 50 patients, and review of Health Sector Strategic Plan indicator medicines in the stores by simple random sampling. The study was based on the prescribing, patient care and health facility indicators as stipulated by WHO, as well as evaluation of use of herbal drugs. Results: The study established that a high number of drugs and antibiotics were being prescribed, consultation and dispensing times were very low, drug labeling was inadequate and there were insufficient prescribers and qualified dispensers. The study also found out that the percentage of prescribed drugs actually dispensed was fairly good, and most prescriptions were from the Essential Drugs List and by generic names. However prescription of injections was slightly above the recommended standards although most of the patients had reasonable knowledge of drug dosages.
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    Evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity and phytochemical screening of aqueous leaf extract of ocimum suave (lamaiceae)
    (Kampala International University.College of Health Science, 2012-09) Lucy, Kioko Mutindi
    Evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of Ocimurn suave was administered daily for 31 days at dose leve!s[200, 400 and 800mg/kg] in male wistar rats .Acute toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum suave was done according to Lorke,s method up to 10,000mg/kg and was found to cause no death in the two phases of the test. Thus, the LD50 of Ocimurn suave in rats was estimated to be greater than 10,000mg/kg. This study principally aimed to assess the LDso of the aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum suave,the sub-chronic toxicity and to screen for phytochemicals present in this extract. This study was carried out in two centers; Kampala International university-Western campus Pharmacy laboratory in Ishaka-Bushenyi Uganda and Italian laboratory in Mbarara University of Science and Technology-Mbarara Uganda. This is an experimental study carried out between January and July 2012 at the above sites. The respondents were male wistar rats weighing 1 OOg and above. Selection of participants was done by simple random sampling .. Effects on relative organ weights and certain hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were measured as indices of organ toxicity. The aqueous extract caused a decrease in ALT levels but AST levels were higher in the treated groups as the increment was dose dependent. The aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum suave affected mean cell volume ,mean cell hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentration . CK levels were increased in all OSE treated groups as compared to the control group. The aqueous leaf extract caused mean body weight gain, but decrease in relative organ weight .The study suggests that the aqueous extract administered at normal therapeutic doses is not likely to produce severe toxic effects on some hematological and biochemical indices in rats and the organs tested[histology]. Chronic toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of ocimum suave should be done for histological, haematological and biochemical evaluation. There is a need to study the effect of the extract on female wistar rats so that toxic effects can be established in both sexes.
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    Investigation of antibacterial activity, phytochemical screening and the extractive value of different solvents on lawsonia inermi (henna) plant leaf extract.
    (Kampala International University.College of Health Science, 2010-04) Paul, Mayengo Maranya
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity, to determine the most efficiency extractive solvents and phytochemical profile of Hot water, Methanol alcohol and Lemon juice extract of Lawsonia inermis (henna) leaf. The plant attracted the attention of researchers because of its use as anti-infective agent. The oily and alcoholic extracts of the plant Lawsonia inermis dried powdered leaves were separately obtained by maceration, while the aqueous was obtained by Infusion extraction method. The bacteria organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Extraction, Phytochemical screening and susceptibility test of the plant leaves were performed using standard procedures. The Phytochemical screening results revealed the presence of tannins, steroids and reducing sugars as the major bioactive constituents. The Lemon juice extractive value was relatively much higher than the alcoholic and aqueous. The result of susceptibility test showed that the extract had greater antibacterial effect against all the two test organisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) used as compared with standard drugs. Submitted ............................................... . Reviewed ............................................... .. Internal defense ..................................... . Accepted ................................................ ..