Environmental Management Science

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    Effect of Community Hygiene and Water Handling Practices on Drinking Water Quality in Mpondwe Lhubiriha Town Council, Western Uganda
    (Kampala International University, 2023-10-17) Wilfred, Mumbere
    Water safety and quality are fundamental to human development and well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of community hygiene and water handling practices on drinking water quality in Mpondwe Lhubiriha Town Council, Kasese District, Western Uganda. Sixteen samples from different water sources and storage vessels in households were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological Quality during wet and dry season as described in UNBS Portable water quality analysis guidelines. Characterization of Community hygiene, household drinking water handling practices and risk of water contamination was determined by Qualitative methodology. The study findings revealed that community hygiene and water handling practices had a direct effect on water quality where 97.70% of respondents do not practice household water treatment methods. PH, E.C, TDS, temperature, and total hardness were within permissible limits of WHO standard while there was a variation in Dissolved oxygen and nitrates values. Microbial analysis results showed a variation in Total coli and Escherichia coli above UNBS standard this could be due to cross contamination, poor water handling practices where some respondents (41%) had no specific cleaning schedule for water vessels, most respondents (54.00%) were using same vessels for water collection and storage as well as factors from already determined household sanitary risk factor of 39.00-90.00% while Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus bacteria was within limits of WHO standard. This research also revealed that Total coliform and E. coli have a strong positive correlation with Nitrate presence in the water samples (r=0.412, p=0.008) and Nitrates (r=0.557, p=0.000) respectively. Water from some sources and households in this Town Council is not safe for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, should promote good community hygiene, water handling practices and appropriate household water treatment practices to prevent Drinking water Quality variations from the set WHO standard.
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    The Impact of Climate Change on Community Livelihood in Jowhar Middleshabelle Region of SomaliCommunity Participation in Environmental Conservation Practice In Guri’el, Galmudug State, Somalia
    (Kampala International University, 2023-09-24) Ali, Mohamed Yusuf
    This study established the contribution of community participation in environmental conservation practice, examined the challenges faced by the communities in environmental conservation practice, and also proposed mechanisms that can be employed in environmental conservation practice in Guirel District. The study adopted a quantitative research method in which questionnaires were used to gather data from 171 respondents, with the use of descriptive statistical analysis to answer the research questions. The research hypothesis was tested at a 0.005 alpha level of significance. The study established that environmental conservation in the district is done through several mechanisms including the provision of seedlings to the community by the Government, periodic tree planting, provision of land for tree planting, the establishment of tree schemes by the Government, and provision of seedlings for reforestation by NGOs. Therefore, communities play a big role in the implementation of conservation programs in the district through the actual planting of trees and monitoring of the conservation programs. However, involved communities were challenged with a lack of financial support, limited information on conservation, lack of accessibility to the reforestation schemes, and a low level of awareness and this limited their support of the programs. The study therefore, recommends that a forest management plan that is involving community members in every stage and also making them play a key role in the management of the forest should be made so that they would argue what they want and how they want it done for a better understanding of the forest management. The study recommends that there is a need for government to popularize unknown species so that communities can benefit from their commercial exploitation.
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    Effect of Land Pollution on Community Sustainability in Nakawa Division, Kampala, Uganda
    (Kampala International University, 2023-11) Hussein, Hamza Abdisalam
    The was study to assess the effects of land pollution on community sustainability conducted in Nakawa Division, Kampala, Uganda to establish the causes of land pollution among the communities, determine the effect of land pollution on community sustainability, and to design mechanisms that can be employed to reduce land pollution and ensuring community sustainability. The data was collected from 182 respondents and 7 key informants. The study results indicated that, industrialization, institutional factors, limited institutional capacity to plant vegetation, low effectiveness in monitoring by NEMA, ineffective implementation of policy, environmental and socio-cultural systems were major causes of land pollution. The effect was generally more negative hence the assertion that land pollution is a key towards community sustainability. It was established that land pollution reduce bio-diversity, increased dangerous gases and generally the community health in terms of plants, animal and people health in the communities. Also, about 80.2% of the respondents said that there were no mechanisms for reduction of land pollution and enhancing community sustainability. The study concludes that the occurrence of land pollution has generally reduced the community sustainability therefore, there is need for industrialization to be effectively managed to incorporate the environmental controls, effective policy implementations, monitoring of land polluters and provision of general environmental controls.
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    Impacts of climate change on crop production. A case study of Tisai Island, Ongino Sub County, Kumi District
    (School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2015-07) Akurut, Marion
    Climate change in Tisai Island is one of the constraints on crop production and has become so rapid especially in the last 10 to 20 years. According to this study, climate change refers to the average weather or statistical description of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands of millions of years (30 years). The main objective of the study was to explore the impacts of climate change on crop productivity in Tisai Island and the specific objectives were; to find out the causes of climate change, to establish the effects of climate change on crop productivity, to identify the measures used in mitigating climate change effects on crop productivity, and to examine the measures used in increasing crop productivity amidst climate change. The sampling methods were random sampling and judgmental sampling and the sample size was 50 respondents. The instruments for data collection were; questionnaires, interview guides and observation which helped in identifying different climate change phenomenon. During the study, the researcher found out that climate change in Tisai Island is caused by many factors like charcoal burning, bush burning, fossil fuel combustion and deforestation. This has led to various effects such as unreliable rainfall, extreme temperatures, increased pests and disease, floods and soil infertility. However, some mitigation measures are being implemented by the government and nongovernmental organizations to curb down the situation and they are; strict laws and policies, public awareness and participation, afforestation and reforestation and public participation. In conclusion, climate change in Tisai Island is caused majorly by deforestation and bush burning and to a small extent caused by fossil fuel combustion resulting to high temperatures, floods, droughts and unreliable rainfall. However these have been mitigated by measures like awareness creation, public participation, laws and policies, afforestation and reafforestati on. The researcher therefore recommends that development projects like rural electrification programmes, modern agricultural programmes should be extended in the area to help in regulating human activities Iike de forestation, bush burning and charcoal burning. The National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) together with the government and other organizations should carry out various projects like afforestation and reafforestation and irrigation. Fines and charges should put in place to combat environmental degradation. Public awareness should be increased through adverts on radios, posters and carrying out freely attended seminars and also Farmers should also be provided with fast maturing crop varieties to increase their yields. Lastly promotion of Food security by encouraging people to store food for their families in the granaries
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    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Use and Adoption of Family-Sized Bio-digesters as Renewable Energy Sources in Ngoma District, Rwanda
    (Preprints (www.preprints.org), 2018-05-25) Musinguzi, Danson; Kayinamura, Emmanuel; Tumushabe, Ann; Omuna, Daniel; Eniru, Emmanuel I; Akiyode, Oluwole O; Mwebesa, Edson; Byarugaba, Dominic; Basamba, Twaha A.; Katongole, Hadijjah
    1) Background: The environmental, financial and social questions in Africa remain unanswered up-to-date, with the rapid increase in human population and the demand for fuel energy, trigger the need to generate data on the socio-economic factors influencing the knowledge of use and adoption of family-sized bio-digesters. The increasing prices of fossil fuels and taxes on energy sources require finding the alternative, clean and economical sources of energy for households in developing countries. Moreover, in Africa, the consumption of firewood and charcoal continues to increase, with wood fuel consumption predicted to increase by 2030 to over 140%. The study objectives were 1) to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the people in Ngoma district, 2) to assess socio-economic factors influencing people to use and adopt family-sized biodigesters. 2) Methods: Quantitative data collected with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 3) Results: The results show that many households had not realized the potential benefits of biogas use and adoption in Rwanda. The study further found that a number of factors such as household income levels, socio-economic, technological, and institutional influence the household use and adoption of biogas energy. 4) Conclusions: At the end, the study suggests the need for all players such as Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) and local communities to work together to provide incentives and favorable environment that can attract individual households to invest in biogas energy production and utilization.