Administrators and Managers Journal Articles

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    A systematic review: the current status of carbapenem resistance in East Africa
    (Kampala International University, 2018) Kenneth, Ssekatawa; Edward, Wampande; Dennis, K. Byarugaba; Francis, Ejobi
    In this systematic review, we present the molecular epidemiology and knowledge gaps of the carbapenem resistance in East Africa as well as the future probable research interventions that can be used to address the emergence of carbapenem resistance in the region. Results: The 17 articles which presented concrete information about the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in East Africa were reviewed. Tanzania exhibited the highest level of carbapenem resistance at 35% while DRC had the lowest level at 0.96%. Uganda was the only country with studies documenting CR obtained amongst hospital environment isolates with incidence ranging from 21% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 55% in Acinetobacter baumannii. Carbapenem resistance was more exhibited in A. baumannii (23%), followed by P. aeruginosa (17%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%), Proteus mirabilis (14%) and Escherichia coli (12%) mainly isolated from respiratory tract, blood, urine and wound/pus. The regional genetic determinants of carbapenem resistance detected were blaIMP, blaVIM-1 blaSPM-l, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-23 blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58 and blaKPC.
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    A study on visual, audio and tactile reaction time among medical students at Kampala International University in Uganda
    (Kampala International University, 2018) Keneth, Iceland Kasozi; Ngala, Elvis Mbiydzneyuy; Sarah, Namubiru; Abass, Alao Safiriyu; Sheu, Oluwadare Sulaiman; Alfred, O Okpanachi; Herbert, Izo Ninsiima
    Reaction time (RT) is an indicator of neural activity, however, its variation due to visual (VRT), audio (ART) and tactile (TRT) in African medical students has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to determine relationships between VRT, ART and TRT amongst medical students in Uganda. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional study, the body mass index (BMI) and RT (i.e. VRT, ART and TRT) were determined using weighing scale with standiometer and the catch a ruler experiment respectively. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on participant’s lifestyle patterns and analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. Results: The mean (± SEM) VRT, ART and TRT in the study were found to be 0.148 ± 0.002s, 0.141 ± 0.002s and 0.139 ± 0.003s respectively. A strong correlation between TRT and ART was found to exist in the youthful Ugandan medical student’s population. Furthermore, significant differences in ART and VRT were observed with sex, although these were absent amongst preclinical and clinical students, showing the importance of sex in RT. Conclusion: The low VRT and ART in Ugandan medical students is indicative of a healthy somatosensory connectivity, thus of academic importance.
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    Assessment of Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli Prevalence, as well as Antimicrobial Profiles, in Sliced Pineapple Vended within Abakaliki Metropolis
    (Kampala International University, 2023) Afiukwa, Felicitas N; Obaji, Debora G; Ugwu, Okechukwu P. C.
    The prevalent practice of vending sliced pineapple and various fruits on the streets of Nigeria due to cost constraints among buyers has raised concerns regarding potential contaminations and subsequent health risks to consumers. This study procured sixty samples of sliced, ready-to-eat pineapple from street vendors in Abakaliki Metropolis, analyzing them for Salmonella and E. coli contamination using microbiological and biochemical techniques. The isolates underwent antibiotic sensitivity screening via the disc diffusion method. The findings revealed a 20% prevalence of Salmonella species and a striking 70% prevalence of Escherichia coli in the sliced pineapple fruits. Further investigation into antibiotic susceptibility exhibited a concerning pattern of high multidrug resistance among the isolated organisms. Salmonella species showcased resistance percentages ranging from 50% to 100% against ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, meropenem, pefloxacin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, and amoxicillin. In comparison, Escherichia coli exhibited resistance values varying between 28.6% and 100% against the same antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the prevalent practice of slicing and vending fruits on the streets significantly contributes to the dissemination of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Urgent intervention and discouragement of this practice by pertinent authorities are imperative to mitigate the escalating health risks associated with such contaminated fruit vending practices
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    Comparing the Effects of Chinese and Traditional Official Finance on State Repression and Public Demonstrations in Africa
    (2020) Che, Afa’anwi Ma’abo
    DO FOREIGN OFFICIAL FINANCE FLOWS FROM CHINA and traditional Western sources vary in their effects on state repression and public demonstrations in Africa? While one study by Kishi and Raleigh asserts a distinct, statistically significant positive association between Chinese official finance and repression, no quantitative comparative study has been conducted on the effects of Chinese and traditional official finance on public demonstrations in the form of protests and riots.1 The working paper on which this policy brief is based reassesses the effects of Chinese and traditional official finance on repression after rectifying some biases I identified in Kishi and Raleigh’s study. Notable among the biases is the study’s exclusion of analysis relating to recent (post-2013) years which have witnessed nascent reforms to Beijing’s foreign aid policy that, ostensibly, induce checks against misuse of Chinese official finance.2 More innovatively, the research assesses the effects of Chinese and traditional official finance on anti-government, public demonstrations. Additionally, the working paper compares case studies in Cameroon, which mostly receives unconditional Chinese official finance and Uganda, which receives more conditional traditional finance, to determine how well the paper’s statistical relationships are borne out. While Uganda has suffered more protests and riots than Cameroon over the period between 2001 and 2018, data on demonstrations in the two countries from Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED) suggests that Chinese-funded development projects have encountered more anti-project protests and riots compared to Western, particularly World Bank-funded projects. To verify and explain the higher rates of manifestations against Chinese-funded projects, I undertook fieldwork in Cameroon involving comparative project interviews on three selected Chinese projects (the Douala- Yaounde expressway project; the Memve’ele hydropower project; and the Kribi deep seaport project) and two World Bank-sponsored projects (the Lom Pangar hydropower project and the Douala road infrastructure project). The fieldwork was guided by the following research questions:
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    Comparing the Effects of Chinese and Traditional Official Finance on State Repression and Public Demonstrations in Africa
    (Johns Hopkings University, 2020) Che, Afa’anwi Ma’abo
    There is little, non-biased, existing literature on the effects of Chinese official finance on state repression and public demonstrations. As such, this paper employs standard multiple regression analysis to assess how different attributes of Chinese and traditional official finance predict variations in rates of repression and demonstrations in Africa. Although Chinese and traditional official flows have more similarities than differences in their effects on repression, there is a distinct positive and statistically significant relationship between aggregate traditional official finance and public demonstrations. Looking at regional distributions of foreign financed projects and public demonstrations in Cameroon (receiving predominantly Chinese official finance) and Uganda (receiving mainly traditional aid), I find evidence to support a negative correlation between Chinese official finance and public demonstrations on the one hand and a positive correlation between traditional official finance and public demonstrations on the other. However, when specifically analyzing demonstrations against foreign funded development projects this paper reveals, through interviews on selected Chinese and World Bank-funded projects in Cameroon, that owing to less stringent project impact assessments, impact management standards, and the absence of complaint management offices, Chinese-funded projects are more prone to anti-project demonstrations.